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Risveglio dal sogno planetario - Estratto 1

 


COS’È IL RISVEGLIO?

1° PARTE

 

 

Per spiegare il concetto del Risveglio mi servirò dell’analogia della mente pescatrice.

 

Immaginate un pescatore intento a catturare le sue prede mediante l’ausilio di due reti, una rete con trama grossolana e una sottile.

Quando il pescatore getta la sua prima rete catturerà soltanto quei pesci che sono abbastanza grandi da non poter fuggire attraverso le grandi fessure di quella rete, mentre i pesci più piccoli ci passeranno attraverso.

Quando quel pescatore lancia la seconda rete, quella con una trama più fitta e sottile, riuscirà sì a catturare i pesciolini più piccoli ma non potrà mai catturare l’acqua!

 

Il pescatore rappresenta la mente che vuole catturare il significato di questi insegnamenti, l’essenza, la verità.

La rete più grossa rappresenta gli organi sensoriali, i quali possono catturare solamente i dati più grossolani dell’esperienza quotidiana.

La rete più sottile rappresenta l’intelletto ordinario, il quale può catturare le esperienze più sottili ma non potrà mai catturare l’essenza, la verità di quelle esperienze.

L’acqua rappresenta l’essenza sfuggente ad entrambe quelle reti, la Realtà, la Pura Coscienza, la vostra autentica identità, ciò che voi siete realmente.

 

Chiariti i termini di paragone, espandiamo la metafora.

Immaginate che il pescatore (la vostra mente e il corpo) voglia catturare non solo i pesci ma anche tutta l’acqua dell’oceano.  Tale impresa sarà ovviamente impossibile perché l’oceano è immensamente più vasto di qualsiasi contenitore utilizzabile dal pescatore (mente, corpo).

Nonostante l’impossibilità dell’impresa, il pescatore-mente-corpo è talmente cocciuto da sprecare tutte le sue energie in questo tentativo. Soltanto dopo numerosi tentativi fallimentari il pescatore-mente-corpo si fermerà e si arrenderà. In quel momento di pacifico (non disperato) abbandono potrà avvenire la comprensione finale. Tale comprensione definitiva potrà avvenire soltanto quando la vostra mente smetterà di proiettare e alimentare le sue pretese illusorie.

Quello è l’istante ideale in cui può verificarsi il Risveglio!

 

Ora capite perché non potete cogliere la verità (acqua) rimanendo attaccati al vostro intelletto (rete sottile) o alla percezione ordinaria dei sensi corporei (rete grossolana)?

Voi siete stati condizionati a credervi il pescatore (la mente e il corpo), di conseguenza utilizzate continuamente la rete grossolana dei sensi oppure quella più sottile dei pensieri per catturare la vostra stessa natura, per catturare voi stessi. Ed ogni tentativo si rivelerà ovviamente fallimentare.

Tali tentativi risulteranno sempre fallimentari per la semplice ragione che voi non siete né i pesci piccoli né i pesci grossi, voi siete l’acqua stessa che sfugge a qualsiasi rete di pensieri, concetti, parole, sensazioni, esperienze.

La vostra autentica natura sfugge a tutte le reti della mente e degli organi sensoriali.

 

Aldilà di tutto ciò, per quale ragione dovreste catturare voi stessi?

Quando smetterete di identificarvi con la mente ordinaria comprenderete l’assurdità di questo atteggiamento. Vi renderete conto che questo atteggiamento fallace viene replicato continuamente in tutti i settori della società umana, anche nell’ambito spirituale.

 

Per arrivare a quella realizzazione, alla comprensione che non occorre e non si può catturare se stessi, la coscienza ordinaria deve prima smettere di comportarsi come qualcosa che non è (la mente-pescatore); deve accorgersi che non ha bisogno di catturare se stessa – l’essenza, la Verità, la Realtà – con le parole, con i pensieri, con le sensazioni fisiche, con l’approvazione esterna, con le conferme sociali, con i rituali e le pratiche spirituali.

 

Chiunque crediate di essere in questo momento, in questa vita, non rappresenta la vostra essenza ma rappresenta il pescatore-mente. Il vostro atteggiamento, i vostri ragionamenti, i vostri comportamenti – in poche parole l’attività di ricercare qualcosa o qualcuno di speciale rappresentano l’atto di gettare la rete. La rete rappresenta quindi i pensieri e le azioni che utilizzate ossessivamente per catturare, comprendere, trattenere quel qualcosa di speciale, trattenere l’essenza, trattenere voi stessi.

 

Il Risveglio rappresenta l’autentica realizzazione, cioè il puro e diretto riconoscimento, che voi non siete quel pescatore-mente-corpo, voi non siete quel che credete di essere. Quando la coscienza si risveglia a se stessa si accorge che quel pescatore-mente-corpo, l’atto di gettare la rete e la rete stessa erano parte di un magnifico sogno, dentro cui la coscienza si era tuffata e aveva simulato alla perfezione tutte quelle esperienze.

 

Al Risveglio tale coscienza potrebbe ‘metaforicamente’ sentire una voce – la verità interiore – che le dice “Ehi, sei sempre stata risvegliata!”.

Questo messaggio non può essere compreso dalla parte di voi identificata con i contenuti del sogno che state sperimentando in questa dimensione, in questo mondo!

 

Per capirci meglio immaginate che stanotte, mentre sognate, una voce vi sussurri “Ehi, guarda che tu IN REALTÀ NON TI TROVI NEL SOGNO, IL TUO CORPO REALE NON SI TROVA REALMENTE IN QUESTO MONDO!”.

Ecco, il Risveglio dal sogno planetario è la realizzazione che la vostra vera identità non si trova realmente in questo mondo, proprio come ogni notte non vi trovate mai in quei mondi!

Quando guardate con gli occhi della coscienza addormentata può sembrare che vi troviate in qualche mondo ‘esterno e separato’, ma in realtà non siete mai in nessun mondo!

NON SIETE IN NESSUN MONDO!

MAI!

 

Questo in estrema sintesi è ciò che la voce della verità vi farà capire (non verbalmente) quando vi sveglierete dal sogno collettivo. È come se vi dicesse: “Ehi, non c’è stato alcun risveglio, nessuna liberazione, perché in realtà tu eri, sei e sarai sempre libero e risvegliato!”.

 

Se riuscite a guardare tutta questa storia del Risveglio in quest’ottica capite che in verità non ci ‘deve’ essere un evento speciale, un’esperienza, un effetto speciale che confermi il vostro Risveglio: questo effetto speciale può sembrare necessario solo alla coscienza ordinaria, addormentata e totalmente identificata con le storie del sogno; è questa parte addormentata di voi che ‘crede’ che sia necessario raggiungere il traguardo del Risveglio o che sia necessario individuare i segni di riconoscimento della propria auto-realizzazione.

Questa parte di voi è la stessa parte che ogni notte crede nella necessità di dover raggiungere gli obiettivi del sogno, combattere i nemici del sogno, sedurre i personaggi del sogno, dimostrare di essere più ‘Risvegliata’ degli altri sognatori.

La parte lucida di voi sa che tutto questo non è necessario: sa che nessuno può o deve mettere in mostra i segni del proprio Risveglio all’interno del sogno.

Quando riconosci la vera natura del mondo realizzi che non ha più senso ragionare in termini di miracoli, siddhi, super-poteri, abilità paranormali, esperienze spirituali, inferni o paradisi.

Queste distinzioni vengono fatte soltanto in assenza del riconoscimento dell’ipnosi collettiva, cioè in stato di totale incantamento.

Il Risveglio rompe semplicemente quell’incantesimo che induce la coscienza a rimaner assuefatta dalle apparenze.

 

LA CONDIZIONE DI RISVEGLIO È SEMPRE DISPONIBILE PERCHÈ FA PARTE DELLA VOSTRA VERA NATURA.

 

LA CONDIZONE DI RISVEGLIO È ETERNA, SEMPRE ACCESSIBILE, PRESENTE... ANCHE MENTRE SOGNATE, ANCHE MENTRE CREDETE DI NON ESSERE RISVEGLIATI, ANCHE QUANDO VI CREDETE DISPERSI IN UNO DEGLI INFINITI MONDI O IN UNA DELLE INFINITE ESPERIENZE QUOTIDIANE.

 

 

IL CORPO REALE NON SMETTE DI ESISTERE APPENA INIZIA IL SOGNO.

Così la vostra vera identità non smette di essere ‘risvegliata’ né all’inizio (nascita nel sogno collettivo), né durante, né alla fine (morte nel sogno).

Se non smette di essere risvegliata non HA MAI BISOGNO DI RISVEGLIARSI!

Il Risveglio spirituale è un termine convenzionale utilizzato soltanto per ricordare alla coscienza addormentata e immersa nel mondo che la sua vera natura è sempre risvegliata!

Tuttavia la coscienza può ‘credere’ di non esserlo, può fingere di dimenticare la propria vera natura e quindi sentire l’esigenza di andare alla ricerca di se stessa.  Questa ripetitiva ricerca della propria vera natura è il samsara, il sogno collettivo.

 

La ricerca del Risveglio della vostra essenza cesserà spontaneamente appena riconoscerete che voi siete già l’essenza risvegliata!

 

In soldoni cosa accadrà al cosiddetto Risveglio?

Niente... non succederà niente alla vostra vera natura.

O se preferite vi muoverete su questa Terra non più come un io, un corpo, una mente ma come una Presenza Risvegliata alla propria vera natura.

Non ci sarà un paradiso, un harem con 72 vergini.

Ci sarà soltanto la pura consapevolezza che illuminerà la vostra visione e penetrerà qualsiasi illusione sensoriale.

 

 








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-Gaming Channel: ... L'Advaita Vedanta è probabilmente la più conosciuta fra tutte le scuole Vedānta della religione Induista. Letteralmente il termine Advaita significa "non duale", ma viene anche utilizzato per indicare il sistema monistico su cui si fonda il principio dell'indivisibilità del Sé o Ātman dall'Unità (Brahman). I testi fondamentali da cui derivano i Vedānta sono le Upaniṣad, o commenti ai Veda, e i Brahma Sutra, anche conosciuti come Vedānta Sutra, nei quali si concentra la discussione sulla natura intima delle Upanişad. Indice 1	Adi Shankaracharya: i fondamenti dell'Advaita 2	Maestro di meditazione 3	Macrocosmo e Microcosmo 4	Saguna Brahman e Nirguna Brahman 5	Alcuni insegnamenti dell'Advaita Vedānta 6	L'impatto dell'Advaita 7	L'Advaita e la scienza 8	Fondatori e testi chiave 9	I maestri più recenti 10	Voci correlate 11	Collegamenti esterni Adi Shankaracharya: i fondamenti dell'Advaita Magnifying glass icon mgx2.svg	Lo stesso argomento in dettaglio: Adi Shankara. Il primo grande codificatore dell'Advaita Vedānta fu Adi Shankara (788-820). La filosofia che propose fu potente e capitalizzò negli anni il monismo dormiente, e la conoscenza mistica dell'esistenza: proseguendo la linea di pensiero di alcuni rishi espressa nelle Upaniṣad e in particolare la testimonianza di Gauḍapāda, esposta nell'opera principale (la kārikā di commento alla Māṇḍūkya Upaniṣad), Shankara espose la dottrina dell'Advaita, che afferma la Realtà assoluta come unica realtà e la realtà fenomenica come continuo divenire. Quindi l'unica realtà possibile è quella non duale, mentre il mondo, soggetto al continuo divenire, ha una natura illusoria, in quanto impermanente. Egli definì meglio quanto già espresso nelle Upaniṣad: la Realtà assoluta o Brahman e la pura Realtà Ātman dell'essere individuato jivatman o anima individuale, sono la stessa e unica. Questa realtà è non duale, pertanto realizzabile solo rinunciando ai vincoli del contingente. I tre principali stati di consapevolezza (veglia, sogno e sonno profondo), infatti, sono espressione di un quarto stato trascendentale, conosciuto nelle Upaniṣad come turīya, coincidente con la Realtà assoluta o Brahman. La molteplice natura dei fenomeni e la loro ultima essenza è simboleggiata dal suono Aum, il più sacro fra i mantra induisti. Brahman è al tempo stesso immanente e trascendente, e non solo un concetto panteistico. Inoltre, oltre ad essere la causa materiale ed efficiente dell'intero universo, Brahman stesso non è limitato dalla sua auto-proiezione ed effettivamente trascende tutti gli opposti, tutte le dualità, soprattutto aspetti, quali la forma e l'essere; da sempre è incomprensibile alla mente umana. Molte testimonianze di queste esperienze sono state esaurientemente descritte in parecchie Upaniṣad. Tra il 1000 e il 1600 d.C., nella Brihadaranyaka, troviamo un dialogo tra Prajapati e Indra in cui si discute del Sé e dei diversi stati di consapevolezza; fu tuttavia Adi Shankaracharya che diffuse e sistematizzò il concetto di non dualismo come pratica religiosa in un lavoro coerente chiamato Vivekacūḍāmaṇi, o Il gran gioiello della discriminazione. L'influsso di Adi Shankaracharya si fece non solo sentire nella meditazione Advaita, ma anche nella pratica e nella conoscenza Induista. I suoi lavori principali sono le Brahma Bhashyas, che rappresentano dei commentari alle Vedānta Sutra e alla Bhagavad Gita realizzate nello sforzo continuo di ricerca dello stato non-duale, ed infine il trattato sull'Advaita, il Vivekacūḍāmaṇi. Inoltre questo maestro è più conosciuto come l'iniziatore della Bhakti o devozione altruistica, che nel sistema filosofico Advaita si può realizzare soprattutto mediante i bhajan, o canti devozionali, i più famosi dei quali sono il Bhaja Govindaṁ, il Soundaryalahari e Sivanandalhari. Maestro di meditazione I trattati sulle Upaniṣad, la Bhagavad Gita e i Vedānta Sutra, sono i testamenti di una mente acuta e intuitiva che non ammetteva dogmi; Adi Shankara affermava che un devoto, solo attraverso l'altruismo disinteressato e l'amore, governati dalla discriminazione (viveka) sia in grado di andare verso la liberazione (moksha) e di realizzare il Sé interiore, mentre il solo discernimento e l'astratto filosofeggiare non avrebbero portato a nessun risultato. L'accusa secondo la quale questa filosofia sia stata influenzata dal Buddhismo era infondata, dato che Shankara si oppose con veemenza alla negazione dell'essere Īśvara, affermando che il non-manifesto Brahman manifestava sé stesso come Īśvara, l'amante, l'essere perfetto, il divino, identificato poi come Vishnu o Shiva o qualunque cosa dettasse il cuore. Shankara inoltre sosteneva di aver viaggiato attraverso l'India, da sud a nord fino al Kashmir, pregando per la popolazione locale, dibattendo di filosofia con monaci e scolari, apparentemente con successo, anche se non esiste documentazione in proposito. La filosofia che proponeva Shankara era potente, in grado di risvegliare il monismo mistico dormiente dell'allievo, attraverso la conoscenza e la consapevolezza intima dell'esistenza. Inoltre affermava che, sia l'universo fenomenico, sia la nostra coscienza, sia il corpo, che le nostre esperienze, sono realtà illusoria anche se questo non significava negarle. In realtà la Verità Ultima era rappresentata da Brahman, situato al di là del tempo, dello spazio, al di là della causa e dell'effetto. Brahman è immanente e trascendente, non solo come concetto panteistico e pur essendo Brahman la causa materiale del cosmo, esso non è limitato dalla sua proiezione, ma trascende la dualità e gli opposti, soprattutto nella forma e nell'essere, essendo la sua natura intima incomprensibile dalla mente umana. Il compito supremo dell'essere umano è quello di penetrare il velo illusorio della realtà (Maya) per rivelare la vera natura, che non è perenne cambiamento tra vita e morte, ma perfezione assoluta e gioia eterna. Se noi conoscessimo i veri motivi che stanno dietro le nostre azioni e i nostri pensieri, diverremmo consapevoli della fondamentale unità dell'essere. Ma come può una mente limitata comprendere l'illimitatezza del Sé? In realtà non può, ma tuttavia è in grado di trascendere la mente e unirsi all'Assoluto. Macrocosmo e Microcosmo La filosofia Advaita considera la natura e tutto il fenomeno dell'universo come una sovrapposizione che vela il suo immutevole, trascendente e intelligente Substrato. L'universo è in continuo divenire, è incostante ed impermanente, mentre l'Assoluto che è il substrato che lo sottende, non diviene, è costante e permanente. Secondo la sapienza upaniṣadica, l'errore di considerare reale ciò che è solo una sovrapposizione al Reale è simile allo scambiare la corda per il serpente, è l'illusione (Maya) determinata dall'ignoranza metafisica (avidya) da cui deriva il dolore dell'essere umano. Nella Tradizione Vedānta, questa illusoria percezione del divenire è attribuita all'identificazione con le forme manifeste che rende inconsapevoli e separati dal Reale e dalla sua serena immutabile stabilità. Tale identificazione, producendo l'illusione del mondo relativo, rende l'essere umano come il prigioniero della caverna del mito platonico, lontano dalla luce e immerso nelle ombre mutevoli ed ottenebranti di una pseudo realtà, separato dal suo Principio. Obiettivo dell'Advaita Vedānta è la disidentificazione dal relativo e la realizzazione dell'Assoluto. Questa Realtà sottesa ad ogni aspetto del mondo delle forme è, a livello microcosmico, l'Ātman o Sé individuale. Da un punto di vista macrocosmico, invece, abbiamo una triade: Virat rappresenta la totalità degli esseri animati oggettivi, compreso il corpo umano. Hiranyagarbha, la totalità delle anime manifestate, comprende il mentale cosmico. Īśvara è il Dio personale universale e comprende la manifestazione intera, l'aspetto grossolano come quello causale, l'individuale e l'universale. Da questo punto di vista il jīva è un momento coscienziale di Īśvara che è il Jiva universale. Di là da queste triplicità esiste il sostrato di tutto chiamato Brahman. Saguna Brahman e Nirguna Brahman Un altro argomento di discussione nei Veda è se la realtà di Brahman sia "saguna" (con attributi) o "nirguna" (senza attributi). La fede nel concetto di Saguna Brahman portava ad una sviluppo delle facoltà devozionali e a una diffusa devozione per Vishnu e Shiva. Tuttavia dobbiamo ricordare che l'Advaita Vedānta non nega Saguna Brahman. In realtà, Shankara consigliava l'adorazione di Dio nella sua forma più pura e autentica, e lo affermava in diversi lavori nei quali disapprovava l'utilizzo dell'intelletto e della ragione, affermando che solo attraverso l'apertura del cuore si sarebbe trovato l'amore del Signore. Advaita Vedānta è comunemente scambiata come una filosofia intellettuale, data la sua funzionale praticità, nel quale un insegnamento è in grado di "forgiare" il corpo e la mente in puro stato dell'essere. Sia Saguna Brahman che Nirguna Brahman sono comunque forme valide; dalla Coscienza Assoluta deriva sia il principio divino che la creazione. Nirguna Brahman (senza attributi) è la radice metafisica del Saguna Brahman (con attributi), così come lo Zero lo è dell'Uno. Quel Supremo Principio è inclusivo di tutti gli attributi degli esseri, e persino di quelli di Dio. Dal nucleo della vita indifferenziata originano l'Uno ed il molteplice, il creatore e l'esistenza differenziata. In altre parole, il Principio Divino, i mondi celesti ed umani che comprendono l'universo, esistono sulla base di tale Assoluto onnipervadente che li contiene. Nella gerarchia dell'Esistenza, l'Assoluto precede l'universalità del Divino. Nello Spirito Supremo, Uno ed indivisibile, sono impliciti come propri riflessi il Padre e la Madre dell'Universo, l'energia vitale che alimenta le forme e le forme stesse. Questa è la spiegazione filosofica e metafisica del mistero dell'esistenza e dà misura della non-dualità della vita e dell'inscindibilità di tutte le sue dimensioni. In questa cosmogonia sacra, lo Spirito Assoluto, Dio, l'universo, il Sé dell'essere umano appaiono come un continuum, come parti di un sistema unitario dove ogni aspetto non può essere scisso o compreso senza l'altro. Può darsi che l'Advaita sia stato insegnato meglio a partire dal XIX secolo da Shri Ramakrishna. Questo maestro ha paragonato l'infinito senza forma Nirguna Brahman ad un vasto oceano che, attraverso la fresca brezza dell'amore devoto, condensa la forma nella manifestazione. Ma poi, attraverso il calore della conoscenza del sole, il ghiaccio si dovrebbe sciogliere e il devoto realizzare sé stesso in una indifferenziata e perfetta beatitudine. La scuola Vishistadvaita e Dvaita credono nel Saguna Brahman, ossia in un Dio con attributi. Entrambe come l'Advaita sono scuole monistiche e panteistiche, ma differiscono nella definizione dell'ultima forma di Dio. È bene tenere a mente che quando si parla del Brahman si allude al Nirguna Brahman altrimenti noto come Parabrahman, Sat-Cit-Ananda, Uno senza secondo, Zero senza attributi, etc. Quando invece si parla di Brahmā si intende il Saguna Brahman, ovvero Īśvara: l'Uno qualificato, con attributi. Alcuni insegnamenti dell'Advaita Vedānta Vi sono altri testi, molto conosciuti, che hanno influenzato la scuola Vedānta l'Ashtavakra Gita e l'Avadhuta Gita, scritti inizialmente da Ashtavakra e più tardi da Dattatreya. Il venticinquesimo verso dell'Avadhuta Gita dice: Da tale sentenza "ciò che tu sei", il nostro Sé si afferma. Di ciò che è falso e composto di cinque elementi – le Sruti, le scritture dicono, "non questo, non quello, (Neti, Neti)". Questo è un potente e coerente riassunto del sentiero dello Jñāna Yoga, di viveka o discriminazione. Eliminando la prospettiva di maya o dell'illusione, del mondo finito, discriminando tra ciò che è Brahman e ciò che non lo è, si giunge alla Verità. Brahman non è il corpo, non è la mente. Attraverso questo processo, l'aspirante o yogi, "presto" si rende conto che Brahman è il tutto, infinito Satcitananda (Assoluta Verità-Consapevolezza-Perfetta Beatitudine), e ottiene la moksha, la liberazione. L'impatto dell'Advaita La filosofia dell'Advaita Vedānta ha avuto uno straordinario impatto sulla dottrina tantrica e ha fornito un valido appoggio alle considerazione del Sé ultimo sviluppate dagli Yogi, come Brahman, Ātman, l'essere Uno. L'Advaita ha rinnovato il pensiero Indù stimolando il dibattito sul Vishista Advaita, o non dualismo qualificato, e del Dvaita, o dualismo. Grazie all'Advaita la filosofia indù/Vedica ha avuto un forte impulso, il cui seme può essere riconosciuto nell'espressione: La Verità è Una, tuttavia il saggio la osserva come una moltitudine. L'Advaita e la scienza Diversi seguaci dell'Advaita ritengono che questa filosofia potrebbe rappresentare un punto di incontro tra la scienza e il mondo spirituale. Per giustificare questa ipotesi, essi fanno riferimento alle relazioni tra la massa, la frequenza e l'energia stabilite dalla fisica del XX secolo. Credono che queste relazioni, formalizzate in equazioni da Planck e Einstein, suggeriscano che tutta la struttura di questo Universo appaia come un'Unità che esibisca sé stessa come una moltitudine (energia, massa, onde eccetera) e che questo sia coerente con la visione Advaita in cui ogni cosa esiste ma è il risultato della manifestazione dell'"Unità", che è onnipresente, onnisciente e onnipotente. Inoltre correlano le onde materiali di De Broglie della meccanica ondulatoria al mantra Aum della dottrina indù. Fondatori e testi chiave Adi Shankaracharya - scrive Viveka Chudamani, il Vedānta Sutra Bhashya (commenti su Vedānta Sutra), Upadesa Sahasri e Bhagavad Gita Bhashya. Upaniṣad Vedānta Sutra Veda Bhagavad Gita I maestri più recenti Shri Ramakrishna - fu il primo moderno sostenitore dell'Advaita; il suo primo libro fu: "Il Vangelo di Shri Ramakrishna" (Shri Ramarkrishna Katjamrita), fu scritto da un devoto testimone 'M'. Documenta i suoi ultimi anni di vita e le conversazioni con i discepoli e devoti, e serve come chiave di riferimento per gli insegnamenti filosofici. Vivekananda - discepolo di Shri Ramakrishna – scrisse libri su quattro tecniche Yoga Indù: Bhakti Yoga, Jñāna Yoga, Karma Yoga e Raja Yoga. Vedi anche il "Lavoro completo di Swami Vivekananda". Shri Shirdi Sai Baba - Un filosofo mistico del Maharashtra, seguito devotamente sia da Indù, che Musulmani che mescolano l'Induismo Veda con il Sufismo Islamico. Shri Ramana Maharshi, un saggio silenzioso del sud dell'India che ha intensamente seguito la realizzazione della filosofia non duale. H.W.L. Poonja, 1910 - 1997, devoto discepolo di Shri Ramana Maharshi, ebbe molti contatti con il mondo occidentale Nisargadatta Maharaj, 1897 - 1981 Karl Renz, pittore e musicista tedesco che ha avuto un'esperienza molto simile a quella di Ramana Maharshi Swami Tapovan Maharaj, - Il guru di Swami Chinmayananda che risiede a Uttarkashi. Swami Dayananda Saraswati - un Advaita contemporaneo fondatore della Hindu Dharma Acharya Sabha, divenuta il massimo organismo rappresentativo dell'Induismo in India. Swami Chinmayananda Sathya Sai Baba – il cui insegnamento universale di unità delle religioni influì sia sulla filosofia Indù, che sulla conoscenza di altri credi religiosi. Padre Anthony Elenjimittam, 1915-2011, monaco domenicano indiano discepolo del Mahatma Gandhi. Dattatreya Ashtavakra Mooji Raphael, al secolo Raffaele Laquaniti (1926-2019), Maestro Advaitin e metafisico puro che si rifà alla Perennis Philosophia, (La filosofia perenne) nel portare in occidente i testi Advaita Vedānta, da cui ha origine l‘Asparśha Yoga, che vuol dire senza relazioni, senza alcun contatto, senza supporti o sostegni: l’Uno senza secondo. Il fulcro dell’insegnamento Advaita (non duale) è illustrato nel Vedānta, (anta che significa, fine dei Veda), è un sistema metafisico che si radica nella tradizione vedica della Śruti, la dottrina rivelata, il cui insegnamento ammette un unico Principio supremo, come causa di ogni essere.Traduce e commenta direttamente dal Sanscrito i testi della dottrina monista non duale (Advaita, appunto), codificata ed insegnamento metafisico codificato Gauḍapāda e divulgato da Saṅkara; fonda l’ Ashram Vidya che, con la sua redazione traduce (http://www.edizioniasramvidya.it/)le opere Sue e di Śaṅkara stesso. Voci correlate Vivekacūḍāmaṇi Vedānta I cinque involucri Smārta Collegamenti esterni Advaita.it. Advaita Sadhana - I Discorsi di Sri Chandrasekarendra Saraswati Swamigal, su yogicjournal.it. URL consultato il 9 ottobre 2009 (archiviato dall'url originale il 7 aprile 2010). testi traduzioni ed insegnamenti tradizionali: Visionaire [1] Per traduzioni complete di testi tradizionali Vedānta ed approfondimenti in italiano, spagnolo, tedesco, francese, inglese: Raphael, http://www.edizioniasramvidya.it/. [2] Ashtavakra Samhita, su visionaire.org. URL consultato l'8 agosto 2006 (archiviato dall'url originale il 9 marzo 2007). Controllo di autorità	LCCN (EN) sh85001058 Filosofia Portale Filosofia Induismo Portale Induismo Advaita Vedanta From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search "Advaita" redirects here. For other uses, see Advaita (disambiguation). Part of a series on Hinduism 1 Om.svg HindusHistory Origins Main traditions Deities Concepts Practices Philosophical schools Gurus, saints, philosophers Texts Society Other topics Glossary of Hinduism terms Aum Om red.svg Hinduism portal HinduSwastika.svg vte Part of a series on Advaita Vedānta Double drop.jpg Schools Concepts Practices Moksha Texts Teachers Influences Monasteries and Orders Scholarship Categories Hinduism symbol.png Hindu philosophy vte Part of a series on Hindu philosophy Om symbol.svg Orthodox SamkhyaYogaNyayaVaisheshikaMimamsaVedanta Heterodox CharvakaĀjīvikaBuddhismJainism Sub-schools Teachers (Acharyas) Major texts Hinduism Other Indian philosophies vte This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text. Advaita Vedānta (/ʌðˈvaɪtə vɛˈðɑːntə/; Sanskrit: अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST: Advaita Vedānta, literally, "non-duality") is a school of Hindu philosophy, and is a classic system of spiritual realization in Indian tradition.[1] The term Advaita refers to the idea that Brahman alone is ultimately real, the phenomenal transient world is an illusory appearance (maya) of Brahman, and the true self, atman, is not different from Brahman.[2][3][4] Originally known as Puruṣavāda[5][note 1] and as māyāvāda,[6][7][8][9] the followers of this school are known as Advaita Vedantins, or just Advaitins,[10] regarding the phenomenal world as mere illusory appearance of plurality, experienced through the sense-impressions by ignorance (avidya), an illusion superimposed (adhyāsa) on the sole reality of Brahman.[11] They seek moksha (liberation) through recognizing this illusoriness of the phenomenal world and acquiring vidyā (knowledge)[12] of one's true identity as Atman, and the identity of Atman and Brahman.[13][14][15] Adi Shankara, the most prominent exponent of Advaita Vedānta tradition. Advaita Vedānta traces its roots to the oldest Upanishads. It relies on three textual sources called the Prasthanatrayi. It gives "a unifying interpretation of the whole body of Upanishads",[16] the Brahma Sutras, and the Bhagavad Gitā.[17][web 1] Advaita Vedānta is the oldest extant sub-school of Vedānta,[note 2] which is one of the six orthodox (āstika) Hindu philosophies (darśana). Although its roots trace back to the 1st millennium BCE, the most prominent exponent of the Advaita Vedānta is considered by tradition to be the 8th century scholar Adi Shankara.[18][19][20] Advaita Vedānta emphasizes Jivanmukti, the idea that moksha (freedom, liberation) is achievable in this life in contrast to other Indian philosophies that emphasize videhamukti, or moksha after death.[21][22] The school uses concepts such as Brahman, Atman, Maya, Avidya, meditation and others that are found in major Indian religious traditions,[web 1][23][24] but interprets them in its own way for its theories of moksha.[25][26] Advaita Vedānta is one of the most studied and most influential schools of classical Indian thought.[27][28][29] Many scholars describe it as a form of monism,[30][31][32] while others describe the Advaita philosophy as non-dualistic.[33][34] Advaita is considered to be a philosophy or spiritual pathway rather than a religion, as it does not require those who follow it to be of a particular faith or sect.[35][36][37] Advaita influenced and was influenced by various traditions and texts of Hindu philosophies such as Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, other sub-schools of Vedānta, Vaishnavism, Shaivism, the Puranas, the Agamas, as well as social movements such as the Bhakti movement.[38][39][40] Beyond Hinduism, Advaita Vedānta interacted and developed with the other traditions of India such as Jainism and Buddhism.[41] Advaita Vedānta texts espouse a spectrum of views from idealism, including illusionism, to realist or nearly realist positions expressed in the early works of Shankara.[42] In modern times, its views appear in various Neo-Vedānta movements.[43] It has been termed as the paradigmatic example of Hindu spirituality.[44][45] Contents 1	Etymology and nomenclature 2	Darśana (view) – central concerns 3	Moksha – liberation through knowledge of Brahman 3.1	Puruṣārtha – the four goals of human life 3.2	Moksha – liberation 3.3	Vidya, Svādhyāya and Anubhava 3.4	Mahavakya – The Great Sentences 3.5	Stages and practices 4	Ontology 4.1	Absolute Reality 4.2	Levels of Reality, Truths 4.3	Empirical reality – illusion and ignorance 4.4	Three states of consciousness and Turiya 5	Epistemology 5.1	Pratyakṣa (perception) 5.2	Anumāṇa (inference) 5.3	Upamāṇa (comparison, analogy) 5.4	Arthāpatti (postulation) 5.5	Anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof) 5.6	Śabda (relying on testimony) 6	Ethics 7	Texts 7.1	Prasthanatrayi 7.2	Textual authority 8	History of Advaita Vedānta 8.1	Pre-Shankara Advaita Vedānta 8.2	Gaudapada and Māṇḍukya Kārikā 8.3	Adi Shankara 8.4	Post-Shankara – early medieval times 8.5	Late medieval times (Islamic rule of India) – "Greater Advaita Vedānta" 8.6	Modern times (colonial rule and independence) 8.7	Contemporary Advaita Vedānta 9	Sampradaya 9.1	Monastic order: Advaita Mathas 9.2	Shri Gaudapadacharya Math 9.3	Shankara's monastic tradition 10	Relationship with other forms of Vedānta 10.1	Vishishtadvaita 10.2	Shuddhadvaita 10.3	Dvaita 11	Historical influence 11.1	Smarta Tradition 11.2	Other Hindu traditions 12	Relationship with Buddhism 12.1	Similarities with Buddhism 12.2	Gaudapada 12.3	Differences from Buddhism 13	Reception 14	See also 15	Notes 16	References 17	Sources 17.1	Printed sources 17.2	Web-sources 18	Further reading 19	External links Etymology and nomenclature The word Advaita is a composite of two Sanskrit words: Prefix "a-" (अ), meaning "non-" "Dvaita" (द्वैत), which means 'duality' or 'dualism'.[citation needed] Advaita is often translated as "non-duality," but a more apt translation is "non-secondness."[4] It means that there is no other reality than Brahman, that "Reality is not constituted by parts," that is, ever-changing "things" have no existence of their own, but are appearances of the one Existent, Brahman; and that there is no duality between the essence, or Being, of a person (atman), and Brahman, the Ground of Being.[2][3][4] The word Vedānta is a composition of two Sanskrit words: The word Veda refers to the whole corpus of vedic texts, and the word "anta" means 'end'. The meaning of Vedānta can be summed up as "the end of the vedas" or "the ultimate knowledge of the vedas". Vedānta is one of six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy. Originally known as Puruṣavāda,[5][note 1] and as māyāvāda, akin to Madhyamaka Buddhism, due to their insistence that phenomena ultimately lack an inherent essence or reality,[6][7][8][9] the Advaita Vedānta school has been historically referred to by various names, such as Advaita-vada (speaker of Advaita), Abheda-darshana (view of non-difference), Dvaita-vada-pratisedha (denial of dual distinctions), and Kevala-dvaita (non-dualism of the isolated).[46] According to Richard King, a professor of Buddhist and Asian studies, the term Advaita first occurs in a recognizably Vedantic context in the prose of Mandukya Upanishad.[46] In contrast, according to Frits Staal, a professor of philosophy specializing in Sanskrit and Vedic studies, the word Advaita is from the Vedic era, and the Vedic sage Yajnavalkya (8th or 7th-century BCE[47][48]) is credited to be the one who coined it.[49] Stephen Phillips, a professor of philosophy and Asian studies, translates the Advaita containing verse excerpt in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, as "An ocean, a single seer without duality becomes he whose world is Brahman."[note 4] Darśana (view) – central concerns A drop merging in the Ocean, an analogy for the Atman merging into the Brahman Further information: Hindu philosophy Advaita is a subschool of Vedānta, the latter being one of the six classical Hindu darśanas, an integrated body of textual interpretations and religious practices which aim at the attainment of moksha, release or liberation from transmigratory existence.[53][54][note 5] Traditional Advaita Vedānta centers on the study and what it believes to be correct understanding of the sruti, revealed texts, especially the Principal Upanishads,[56][57] along with the Brahma Sutras and the Bhagavad Gitā, which are collectively called as Prasthantrayi. Correct understanding is believed to provide knowledge of one's true identity as Ātman, the dispassionate and unchanging witness-consciousness, and the identity of Ātman and Brahman, which results in liberation.[58][59] This is achieved through what Adi Shankara refers to as anubhava, immediate intuition, a direct awareness which is construction-free, and not construction-filled. It is not an awareness of Brahman, but instead an awareness that is Brahman.[60] Correct knowledge, which destroys avidya, the ignorance that constitutes the psychological and perceptual errors which obscure the true nature of Atman and Brahman,[15] is obtained by following the four stages of samanyasa (self-cultivation), sravana, listening to the teachings of the sages, manana, reflection on the teachings, and svādhyāya, contemplation of the truth "that art Thou". The Advaita Vedānta tradition rejects the dualism of Samkhya purusha (primal consciousness) and prakriti (inert primal matter),[note 6] By accepting this postulation, various theoretical difficulties arise which Advaita and other Vedānta traditions offer different answers for.[63][note 7] A main question is the relation between Atman and Brahman, which is solved by regarding them to be identical.[64][65] This truth is established from the oldest Principal Upanishads and Brahma Sutras, and is also found in parts of the Bhagavad Gitā and numerous other Hindu texts,[web 1] and is regarded to be self-evident. The main aim of the commentaries is to support this nondualistic (of Atman and Brahman) reading of the sruti.[66] Reason is being used to support revelation, the sruti, the ultimate source of truth.[67][note 8] Another question is how Brahman can create the world, and how to explain the manifoldness of phenomenal reality.[69][64][65] By declaring phenomenal reality to be an 'illusion,' the primacy of Atman/Brahman can be maintained.[64][65] The Advaita literature also provide a criticism of opposing systems, including the dualistic school of Hinduism, as well as other Nastika (heterodox) philosophies such as Buddhism.[66] Moksha – liberation through knowledge of Brahman Puruṣārtha – the four goals of human life Advaita, like other schools, accepts Puruṣārtha – the four goals of human life as natural and proper:[70] Dharma: the right way to life, the "duties and obligations of the individual toward himself and the society as well as those of the society toward the individual";[71] Artha: the means to support and sustain one's life; Kāma: pleasure and enjoyment; Mokṣa: liberation, release. Of these, much of the Advaita Vedānta philosophy focuses on the last, gaining liberation in one's current life.[72] The first three are discussed and encouraged by Advaitins, but usually in the context of knowing Brahman and Self-realization.[73] Moksha – liberation See also: Jnana, Prajna, and Prajñānam Brahma The soteriological goal, in Advaita, is to gain self-knowledge and complete understanding of the identity of Atman and Brahman. Correct knowledge of Atman and Brahman leads to dissolution of all dualistic tendencies and to liberation,[note 9] Moksha is attained by realizing one's true identity as Ātman, and the identity of Atman and Brahman, the complete understanding of one's real nature as Brahman in this life.[13] This is stated by Shankara as follows: I am other than name, form and action. My nature is ever free! I am Self, the supreme unconditioned Brahman. I am pure Awareness, always non-dual. — Adi Shankara, Upadesasahasri 11.7, [13] According to Advaita Vedānta, liberation can be achieved while living, and is called Jivanmukti.[74] The Atman-knowledge, that is the knowledge of true Self and its relationship to Brahman is central to this liberation in Advaita thought.[note 10] Atman-knowledge, to Advaitins, is that state of full awareness, liberation and freedom which overcomes dualities at all levels, realizing the divine within oneself, the divine in others and all beings, the non-dual Oneness, that Brahman is in everything, and everything is Brahman.[76][77][78] According to Rambachan, in Advaita, this state of liberating self-knowledge includes and leads to the understanding that "the self is the self of all, the knower of self sees the self in all beings and all beings in the self."[79] Jivanmukta In Advaita Vedānta, the interest is not in liberation in after life, but in one's current life.[80] This school holds that liberation can be achieved while living, and a person who achieves this is called a Jivanmukta.[74][81] Ramana Maharshi, the Indian sage who was widely regarded as a Jivanmukta The concept of Jivanmukti of Advaita Vedānta contrasts with Videhamukti (moksha from samsara after death) in theistic sub-schools of Vedānta.[82] Jivanmukti is a state that transforms the nature, attributes and behaviors of an individual, after which the liberated individual shows attributes such as:[83] he is not bothered by disrespect and endures cruel words, treats others with respect regardless of how others treat him; when confronted by an angry person he does not return anger, instead replies with soft and kind words; even if tortured, he speaks and trusts the truth; he does not crave for blessings or expect praise from others; he never injures or harms any life or being (ahimsa), he is intent in the welfare of all beings; he is as comfortable being alone as in the presence of others; he is as comfortable with a bowl, at the foot of a tree in tattered robe without help, as when he is in a mithuna (union of mendicants), grama (village) and nagara (city); he does not care about or wear sikha (tuft of hair on the back of head for religious reasons), nor the holy thread across his body. To him, knowledge is sikha, knowledge is the holy thread, knowledge alone is supreme. Outer appearances and rituals do not matter to him, only knowledge matters; for him there is no invocation nor dismissal of deities, no mantra nor non-mantra, no prostrations nor worship of gods, goddess or ancestors, nothing other than knowledge of Self; he is humble, high spirited, of clear and steady mind, straightforward, compassionate, patient, indifferent, courageous, speaks firmly and with sweet words. Vidya, Svādhyāya and Anubhava Main article: Svādhyāya Sruti (scriptures), proper reasoning and meditation are the main sources of knowledge (vidya) for the Advaita Vedānta tradition.[84][85][86] It teaches that correct knowledge of Atman and Brahman is achievable by svādhyāya,[87] study of the self and of the Vedic texts, and three stages of practice: sravana (perception, hearing), manana (thinking) and nididhyasana (meditation),[86] a three-step methodology that is rooted in the teachings of chapter 4 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.[88][89] Sravana literally means hearing, and broadly refers to perception and observations typically aided by a counsellor or teacher (guru),[90] wherein the Advaitin listens and discusses the ideas, concepts, questions and answers.[86][88] Manana refers to thinking on these discussions and contemplating over the various ideas based on svadhyaya and sravana.[88][90][91] Nididhyāsana refers to meditation, realization and consequent conviction of the truths, non-duality and a state where there is a fusion of thought and action, knowing and being.[92][88] Bilimoria states that these three stages of Advaita practice can be viewed as sadhana practice that unifies Yoga and Karma ideas, and was most likely derived from these older traditions.[93][90] Adi Shankara uses anubhava interchangeably with pratipatta, "understanding".[94] Dalal and others state that anubhava does not center around some sort of "mystical experience," but around the correct knowledge of Brahman.[85][95] Nikhalananda states that (knowledge of) Atman and Brahman can only be reached by buddhi, "reason,"[96] stating that mysticism is a kind of intuitive knowledge, while buddhi is the highest means of attaining knowledge.[97] Mahavakya – The Great Sentences Main article: Mahāvākyas Several Mahavakyas, or "the great sentences", have Advaitic theme, that is "the inner immortal self and the great cosmic power are one and the same".[98] Sr. No.	Vakya	Meaning	Upanishad	Veda 1	प्रज्ञानं ब्रह्म (prajñānam brahma)	Prajñānam[note 11] is Brahman[note 12]	Aitareya V.3	Rigveda 2.	अहं ब्रह्मास्मि (aham brahmāsmi)	I am Brahman, or I am Divine[101]	Brhadāranyaka I.4.10	Shukla Yajurveda 3.	तत्त्वमसि (tat tvam asi)	That thou art, or You are that	Chandogya VI.8.7	Samaveda 4.	अयमात्मा ब्रह्म (ayamātmā brahma)	This Atman is Brahman	Mandukya II	Atharvaveda Stages and practices Advaita Vedānta entails more than self-inquiry or bare insight into one's real nature,[note 13] but also includes self-restraint, textual studies and ethical perfection. It is described in classical Advaita books like Shankara's Upadesasahasri[103] and the Vivekachudamani, which is also attributed to Shankara. Jnana Yoga – path of practice Main article: Jnana Yoga Classical Advaita Vedānta emphasises the path of Jnana Yoga, a progression of study and training to attain moksha.[104][105] It consists of fourfold qualities,[106] or behavioral qualifications (Samanyasa, Sampattis, sādhana-catustaya):[107][108][109][note 14] A student is Advaita Vedānta tradition is required to develop these four qualities - Nityānitya vastu viveka (नित्यानित्य वस्तु विवेकम्) – Viveka is the ability to correctly discriminate between the real and eternal (nitya) and the substance that is apparently real, illusory, changing and transitory (anitya).[107][109] Ihāmutrārtha phala bhoga virāga (इहाऽमुत्रार्थ फल भोगविरागम्) – The renunciation (virāga) of all desires of the mind (bhog) for sense pleasures, in this world (iha) and other worlds. Willing to give up everything that is an obstacle to the pursuit of truth and self-knowledge.[109][110] Śamādi ṣatka sampatti (शमादि षट्क सम्पत्ति) – the sixfold virtues or qualities - Śama - mental tranquility, ability to focus the mind.[109][110] Dama - self-restraint,[note 15] the virtue of temperance.[109][110] restraining the senses. Uparati - dispassion, lack of desire for worldly pleasures, ability to be quiet and disassociated from everything;[109] discontinuation of all religious duties and ceremonies[110] Titikṣa - endurance, perseverance, putting up with pairs of opposites (like heat and cold, pleasure and pain), ability to be patient during demanding circumstances[109][110] Śraddhā - having faith in teacher and the Sruti scriptural texts[109] Samādhāna - contentedness, satisfaction of mind in all conditions, attention, intentness of mind[109][110] Mumukṣutva (मुमुक्षुत्वम्) – An intense longing for freedom, liberation and wisdom, driven to the quest of knowledge and understanding. Having moksha as the primary goal of life[109][106] Correct knowledge, which destroys avidya, psychological and perceptual errors related to Atman and Brahman,[15] is obtained in jnanayoga through three stages of practice,[108] sravana (hearing), manana (thinking) and nididhyasana (meditation).[86] This three-step methodology is rooted in the teachings of chapter 4 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad:[88][89] Sravana, listening to the teachings of the sages on the Upanishads and Advaita Vedānta, studying the Vedantic texts, such as the Brahma Sutras, and discussions with the guru (teacher, counsellor);[107][114][86] Manana, refers to thinking on these discussions and contemplating over the various ideas based on svadhyaya and sravana.[88] It is the stage of reflection on the teachings;[88][114] Nididhyāsana, the stage of meditation and introspection.[109][web 3] This stage of practice aims at realization and consequent conviction of the truths, non-duality and a state where there is a fusion of thought and action, knowing and being.[92][88] Samadhi While Shankara emphasized śravaṇa ("hearing"), manana ("reflection") and nididhyāsana ("repeated meditation"), later texts like the Dṛg-Dṛśya-Viveka (14th century) and Vedāntasara (of Sadananda) (15th century) added samādhi as a means to liberation, a theme that was also emphasized by Swami Vivekananda. Guru Main article: Guru Advaita Vedānta school has traditionally had a high reverence for Guru (teacher), and recommends that a competent Guru be sought in one's pursuit of spirituality. However, finding a Guru is not mandatory in the Advaita school, states Clooney, but the reading of Vedic literature and reflection, is.[115] Adi Shankara, states Comans, regularly employed compound words "such as Sastracaryopadesa (instruction by way of the scriptures and the teacher) and Vedāntacaryopadesa (instruction by way of the Upanishads and the teacher) to emphasize the importance of Guru".[115] This reflects the Advaita tradition which holds a competent teacher as important and essential to gaining correct knowledge, freeing oneself from false knowledge, and to self-realization.[116] A guru is someone more than a teacher, traditionally a reverential figure to the student, with the guru serving as a "counselor, who helps mold values, shares experiential knowledge as much as literal knowledge, an exemplar in life, an inspirational source and who helps in the spiritual evolution of a student.[117] The guru, states Joel Mlecko, is more than someone who teaches specific type of knowledge, and includes in its scope someone who is also a "counselor, a sort of parent of mind and soul, who helps mold values and experiential knowledge as much as specific knowledge, an exemplar in life, an inspirational source and who reveals the meaning of life."[117] Ontology See also: Metaphysics and Ontology The swan is an important motif in Advaita. The swan symbolises the ability to discern Satya(Real, Eternal) from Mithya(Unreal, Changing), just like the mythical swan Paramahamsa discerns milk from water. Absolute Reality Brahman Main articles: Brahman and Satcitananda According to Advaita Vedānta, Brahman is the highest Reality,[75][118][119] That which is unborn and unchanging,[118][120] and "not sublatable",[75] and cannot be superseded by a still higher reality.[121][note 16] Other than Brahman, everything else, including the universe, material objects and individuals, are ever-changing and therefore maya. Brahman is Paramarthika Satyam, "Absolute Truth",[136] and the true Self, pure consciousness ... the only Reality (sat), since It is untinged by difference, the mark of ignorance, and since It is the one thing that is not sublatable".[75] In Advaita, Brahman is the substrate and cause of all changes.[137][120] Brahman is considered to be the material cause[note 17] and the efficient cause[note 18] of all that exists.[119][138][139] Brahman is the "primordial reality that creates, maintains and withdraws within it the universe."[127] It is the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world".[140] Advaita's Upanishadic roots state Brahman's qualities[note 19] to be Sat-cit-ānanda (being-consciousness-bliss)[141][142] It means "true being-consciousness-bliss,"[143][144] or "Eternal Bliss Consciousness".[145] Adi Shankara held that satcitananda is identical with Brahman and Atman.[143] The Advaitin scholar Madhusudana Sarasvati explained Brahman as the Reality that is simultaneously an absence of falsity (sat), absence of ignorance (cit), and absence of sorrow/self-limitation (ananda).[143] According to Adi Shankara, the knowledge of Brahman that Shruti provides cannot be obtained in any other means besides self inquiry.[146] Ātman Main article: Ātman (Hinduism) See also: Samadhi, Buddha-nature, Sunyata, and Choiceless awareness Ātman (IAST: ātman, Sanskrit: आत्मन्) is a central idea in Hindu philosophy and a foundational premise of Advaita Vedānta. It is a Sanskrit word that means "real self" of the individual,[147][148] "essence",[web 4] and soul.[147][149] Yet, according to Ram-Prasad, "it" is not an object, but "the irreducible essence of being [as] subjectivity, rather than an objective self with the quality of consciousness."[150] It is "a stable subjectivity, or a unity of consciousness through all the specific states of individuated phenomenality, but not an individual subject of consciousness."[151] Ātman is the first principle in Advaita Vedānta, along with its concept of Brahman, with Ātman being the perceptible personal particular and Brahman the inferred unlimited universal, both synonymous and interchangeable.[152] It is, to an Advaitin, the unchanging, enduring, eternal absolute.[153][154] It is the "true self" of an individual, a consciousness, states Sthaneshwar Timalsina, that is "self-revealed, self-evident and self-aware (svaprakashata)".[155] Ātman, states Eliot Deutsch, is the "pure, undifferentiated, supreme power of awareness", it is more than thought, it is a state of being, that which is conscious and transcends subject-object divisions and momentariness.[156] Advaita Vedānta philosophy considers Ātman as self-existent awareness, limitless and non-dual.[76] It asserts that there is "spirit, soul, self" (Ātman) within each living entity, which are same as each other and identical to the universal eternal Brahman.[77] It is an experience of "oneness" which unifies all beings, in which there is the divine in every being, in which all existence is a single Reality, and in which there is no "divine" distinct from the individual Ātman.[157][158][79] Ātman is not the constantly changing body, not the desires, not the emotions, not the ego, nor the dualistic mind in Advaita Vedānta.[159][160][161] It is the introspective, inwardly self-conscious "on-looker" (saksi).[162] To Advaitins, human beings, in a state of unawareness and ignorance, see their "I-ness" as different than the being in others, then act out of impulse, fears, cravings, malice, division, confusion, anxiety, passions, and a sense of distinctiveness.[163][164][165] Identity of Ātman and Brahman According to Advaita Vedānta, Atman is identical to Brahman.[166][167] This is expressed in the mahavakya "tat tvam asi", "thou are that." There is "a common ground, viz. consciousness, to the individual and Brahman."[167] Each soul, in Advaita view, is non-different from the infinite.[168] According to Shankara, Ātman and Brahman seem different at the empirical level of reality, but this difference is only an illusion, and at the highest level of reality they are really identical.[169] Moksha is attained by realizing the identity of Ātman and Brahman, the complete understanding of one's real nature as Brahman in this life.[13] This is frequently stated by Advaita scholars, such as Shankara, as: I am other than name, form and action. My nature is ever free! I am Self, the supreme unconditioned Brahman. I am pure Awareness, always non-dual. — Adi Shankara, Upadesasahasri 11.7, [13] Levels of Reality, Truths See also: Two truths doctrine The classical Advaita Vedānta explains all reality and everything in the experienced world to be same as the Brahman.[web 1] To Advaitins, there is a unity in multiplicity, and there is no dual hierarchy of a Creator and the created universe.[web 1][170] All objects, all experiences, all matter, all consciousness, all awareness, in Advaita philosophy is not the property but the very nature of this one fundamental reality Brahman.[web 1] With this premise, the Advaita school states that any ontological effort must presuppose a knowing self, and this effort needs to explain all empirical experiences such as the projected reality while one dreams during sleep, and the observed multiplicity of living beings. This Advaita does by positing its theory of three levels of reality,[171] the theory of two truths,[172] and by developing and integrating these ideas with its theory of errors (anirvacaniya khyati).[173][web 1] Shankara proposes three levels of reality, using sublation as the ontological criterion:[174][175][176] Pāramārthika (paramartha, absolute), the Reality that is metaphysically true and ontologically accurate. It is the state of experiencing that "which is absolutely real and into which both other reality levels can be resolved". This reality is the highest, it can't be sublated (assimilated) by any other.[174][177] Vyāvahārika (vyavahara), or samvriti-saya,[178] consisting of the empirical or pragmatical reality. It is ever changing over time, thus empirically true at a given time and context but not metaphysically true. It is "our world of experience, the phenomenal world that we handle every day when we are awake". It is the level in which both jiva (living creatures or individual souls) and Iswara are true; here, the material world is also true but this is incomplete reality and is sublatable.[177][179] Prāthibhāsika (pratibhasika, apparent reality, unreality), "reality based on imagination alone". It is the level of experience in which the mind constructs its own reality. Well-known examples of pratibhasika is the imaginary reality such as the "roaring of a lion" fabricated in dreams during one's sleep, and the perception of a rope in the dark as being a snake.[177][180][181] Advaita Vedānta acknowledges and admits that from the empirical perspective there are numerous distinctions.[182] It states that everything and each reality has multiple perspectives, both absolute and relative. All these are valid and true in their respective contexts, states Advaita, but only from their respective particular perspectives. This "absolute and relative truths" explanation, Advaitins call as the "two truths" doctrine.[172][182][183] John Grimes, a professor of Indian Religions specializing on Vedānta, explains this Advaita doctrine with the example of light and darkness.[182] From the sun's perspective, it neither rises nor sets, there is no darkness, and "all is light". From the perspective of a person on earth, sun does rise and set, there is both light and darkness, not "all is light", there are relative shades of light and darkness. Both are valid realities and truths, given their perspectives. Yet, they are contradictory. What is true from one point of view, states Grimes, is not from another. To Advaita Vedānta, this does not mean there are two truths and two realities, but it only means that the same one Reality and one Truth is explained or experienced from two different perspectives.[182][184] As they developed these theories, Advaita Vedānta scholars were influenced by some ideas from the Nyaya, Samkhya and Yoga schools of Hindu philosophy.[185][176] These theories have not enjoyed universal consensus among Advaitins, and various competing ontological interpretations have flowered within the Advaita tradition.[web 1][186][187] Empirical reality – illusion and ignorance According to Advaita Vedānta, Brahman is the sole reality. The status of the phenomenal world is an important question in Advaita Vedānta, and different solutions have been proposed. The perception of the phenomenal world as real is explained by maya (constantly changing reality) and avidya ("ignorance"). Other than Brahman, everything else, including the universe, material objects and individuals, are ever-changing and therefore maya. Brahman is Paramarthika Satyam, "Absolute Truth",[136] and "the true Self, pure consciousness, the only Reality (sat), since It is untinged by difference, the mark of ignorance, and since It is the one thing that is not sublatable".[75] Māyā (illusion) Main article: Maya (illusion) The doctrine of Maya is used to explain the empirical reality in Advaita.[188][note 20] Jiva, when conditioned by the human mind, is subjected to experiences of a subjective nature, states Vedānta school, which leads it to misunderstand Maya and interpret it as the sole and final reality. Advaitins assert that the perceived world, including people and other existence, is not what it appears to be".[190] It is Māyā, they assert, which manifests and perpetuates a sense of false duality or divisional plurality.[191] The empirical manifestation is real but changing, but it obfuscates the true nature of metaphysical Reality which is never changing. Advaita school holds that liberation is the unfettered realization and understanding of the unchanging Reality and truths – the Self, that the Self (Soul) in oneself is same as the Self in another and the Self in everything (Brahman).[192] In Advaita Vedānta philosophy, there are two realities: Vyavaharika (empirical reality) and Paramarthika (absolute, spiritual Reality).[193] Māyā is the empirical reality that entangles consciousness. Māyā has the power to create a bondage to the empirical world, preventing the unveiling of the true, unitary Self—the Cosmic Spirit also known as Brahman. This theory of māyā was expounded and explained by Adi Shankara. Competing theistic Dvaita scholars contested Shankara's theory,[194] and stated that Shankara did not offer a theory of the relationship between Brahman and Māyā.[195] A later Advaita scholar Prakasatman addressed this, by explaining, "Maya and Brahman together constitute the entire universe, just like two kinds of interwoven threads create a fabric. Maya is the manifestation of the world, whereas Brahman, which supports Maya, is the cause of the world."[196] Brahman is the sole metaphysical truth in Advaita Vedānta, Māyā is true in epistemological and empirical sense; however, Māyā is not the metaphysical and spiritual truth. The spiritual truth is the truth forever, while what is empirical truth is only true for now. Complete knowledge of true Reality includes knowing both Vyavaharika (empirical) and Paramarthika (spiritual), the Māyā and the Brahman. The goal of spiritual enlightenment, state Advaitins, is to realize Brahman, realize the unity and Oneness of all reality.[193][197][78] Avidya (ignorance) Due to ignorance (avidyā), Brahman is perceived as the material world and its objects (nama rupa vikara). According to Shankara, Brahman is in reality attributeless and formless. Brahman, the highest truth and all (Reality), does not really change; it is only our ignorance that gives the appearance of change. Also due to avidyā, the true identity is forgotten, and material reality, which manifests at various levels, is mistaken as the only and true reality. The notion of avidyā and its relationship to Brahman creates a crucial philosophical issue within Advaita Vedānta thought: how can avidyā appear in Brahman, since Brahman is pure consciousness?[198] Sengaku Mayeda writes, in his commentary and translation of Adi Shankara's Upadesasahasri: Certainly the most crucial problem which Sankara left for his followers is that of avidyā. If the concept is logically analysed, it would lead the Vedanta philosophy toward dualism or nihilism and uproot its fundamental position.[199] To Advaitins, human beings, in a state of unawareness and ignorance of this Universal Self, see their "I-ness" as different than the being in others, then act out of impulse, fears, cravings, malice, division, confusion, anxiety, passions, and a sense of distinctiveness.[165][200] Subsequent Advaitins gave somewhat various explanations, from which various Advaita schools arose. Causality Main article: Cause and effect in Advaita Vedanta All schools of Vedānta subscribe to the theory of Satkāryavāda,[web 5] which means that the effect is pre-existent in the cause. But there are different views on the causal relationship and the nature of the empirical world from the perspective of metaphysical Brahman. The Brahma Sutras, the ancient Vedantins, most sub-schools of Vedānta,[201][web 5] as well as Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy,[web 5] support Parinamavada, the idea that the world is a real transformation (parinama) of Brahman.[201] Scholars disagree on the whether Adi Shankara and his Advaita system explained causality through vivarta.[web 5][201][202] According to Andrew Nicholson, instead of parinama-vada, the competing causality theory is Vivartavada, which says "the world, is merely an unreal manifestation (vivarta) of Brahman. Vivartavada states that although Brahman appears to undergo a transformation, in fact no real change takes place. The myriad of beings are unreal manifestation, as the only real being is Brahman, that ultimate reality which is unborn, unchanging, and entirely without parts". The advocates of this illusive, unreal transformation based causality theory, states Nicholson, have been the Advaitins, the followers of Shankara.[201] "Although the world can be described as conventionally real", adds Nicholson, "the Advaitins claim that all of Brahman’s effects must ultimately be acknowledged as unreal before the individual self can be liberated".[web 5] However, other scholars such as Hajime Nakamura and Paul Hacker disagree. Hacker and others state that Adi Shankara did not advocate Vivartavada, and his explanations are "remote from any connotation of illusion". According to these scholars, it was the 13th century scholar Prakasatman who gave a definition to Vivarta, and it is Prakasatman's theory that is sometimes misunderstood as Adi Shankara's position.[202][note 21] Andrew Nicholson concurs with Hacker and other scholars, adding that the vivarta-vada isn't Shankara's theory, that Shankara's ideas appear closer to parinama-vada, and the vivarta explanation likely emerged gradually in Advaita subschool later.[web 5] According to Eliot Deutsch, Advaita Vedānta states that from "the standpoint of Brahman-experience and Brahman itself, there is no creation" in the absolute sense, all empirically observed creation is relative and mere transformation of one state into another, all states are provisional and a cause-effect driven modification.[205] Three states of consciousness and Turiya See also: Three Bodies Doctrine (Vedanta) and Kosha Advaita posits three states of consciousness, namely waking (jagrat), dreaming (svapna), deep sleep (suṣupti), which are empirically experienced by human beings,[206][207] and correspond to the Three Bodies Doctrine:[208] The first state is the waking state, in which we are aware of our daily world.[209] This is the gross body. The second state is the dreaming mind. This is the subtle body.[209] The third state is the state of deep sleep. This is the causal body.[209] Advaita also posits the fourth state of Turiya, which some describe as pure consciousness, the background that underlies and transcends these three common states of consciousness.[web 6][web 7] Turiya is the state of liberation, where states Advaita school, one experiences the infinite (ananta) and non-different (advaita/abheda), that is free from the dualistic experience, the state in which ajativada, non-origination, is apprehended.[210] According to Candradhara Sarma, Turiya state is where the foundational Self is realized, it is measureless, neither cause nor effect, all prevading, without suffering, blissful, changeless, self-luminous, real, immanent in all things and transcendent.[211] Those who have experienced the Turiya stage of self-consciousness have reached the pure awareness of their own non-dual Self as one with everyone and everything, for them the knowledge, the knower, the known becomes one, they are the Jivanmukta.[212][213][214] Advaita traces the foundation of this ontological theory in more ancient Sanskrit texts.[215] For example, chapters 8.7 through 8.12 of Chandogya Upanishad discuss the "four states of consciousness" as awake, dream-filled sleep, deep sleep, and beyond deep sleep.[215][216] One of the earliest mentions of Turiya, in the Hindu scriptures, occurs in verse 5.14.3 of the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.[217] The idea is also discussed in other early Upanishads.[218] Epistemology See also: Pramana and Epistemology The ancient and medieval texts of Advaita Vedānta and other schools of Hindu philosophy discuss Pramana (epistemology). The theory of Pramana discusses questions like how correct knowledge can be acquired; how one knows, how one doesn't; and to what extent knowledge pertinent about someone or something can be acquired.[219][220] Advaita Vedānta,[221] accepts the following six kinds of pramāṇas:[222][223] Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्षाय) – perception Anumāṇa (अनुमान) – inference Upamāṇa (उपमान) – comparison, analogy Arthāpatti (अर्थापत्ति) – postulation, derivation from circumstances[220][224] Anupalabdi (अनुपलब्धि) – non-perception, negative/cognitive proof[225] Śabda (शब्द) – relying on word, testimony of past or present reliable experts[220][225] Pratyakṣa (perception) Pratyakṣa (प्रत्यक्षाय), perception, is of two types: external – that arising from the interaction of five senses and worldly objects, and internal – perception of inner sense, the mind.[226] Advaita postulates four pre-requisites for correct perception: 1) Indriyarthasannikarsa (direct experience by one's sensory organ(s) with the object, whatever is being studied), 2) Avyapadesya (non-verbal; correct perception is not through hearsay, according to ancient Indian scholars, where one's sensory organ relies on accepting or rejecting someone else's perception), 3) Avyabhicara (does not wander; correct perception does not change, nor is it the result of deception because one's sensory organ or means of observation is drifting, defective, suspect) and 4) Vyavasayatmaka (definite; correct perception excludes judgments of doubt, either because of one's failure to observe all the details, or because one is mixing inference with observation and observing what one wants to observe, or not observing what one does not want to observe).[227] The internal perception concepts included pratibha (intuition), samanyalaksanapratyaksa (a form of induction from perceived specifics to a universal), and jnanalaksanapratyaksa (a form of perception of prior processes and previous states of a 'topic of study' by observing its current state).[228] Anumāṇa (inference) Anumāṇa (अनुमान), inference, is defined as applying reason to reach a new conclusion about truth from one or more observations and previous understanding of truths.[229] Observing smoke and inferring fire is an example of Anumana. This epistemological method for gaining knowledge consists of three parts: 1) Pratijna (hypothesis), 2) Hetu (a reason), and 3) drshtanta (examples).[230] The hypothesis must further be broken down into two parts: 1) Sadhya (that idea which needs to proven or disproven) and 2) Paksha (the object on which the Sadhya is predicated). The inference is conditionally true if Sapaksha (positive examples as evidence) are present, and if Vipaksha (negative examples as counter-evidence) are absent. For rigor, the Indian philosophies further demand Vyapti – the requirement that the hetu (reason) must necessarily and separately account for the inference in "all" cases, in both sapaksha and vipaksha.[230][231] A conditionally proven hypothesis is called a nigamana (conclusion).[232] Upamāṇa (comparison, analogy) Upamāṇa (उपमान), comparison, analogy.[220][224] Some Hindu schools consider it as a proper means of knowledge.[233] Upamana, states Lochtefeld,[234] may be explained with the example of a traveler who has never visited lands or islands with endemic population of wildlife. He or she is told, by someone who has been there, that in those lands you see an animal that sort of looks like a cow, grazes like cow but is different from a cow in such and such way. Such use of analogy and comparison is, state the Indian epistemologists, a valid means of conditional knowledge, as it helps the traveller identify the new animal later.[234] The subject of comparison is formally called upameyam, the object of comparison is called upamanam, while the attribute(s) are identified as samanya.[235] Arthāpatti (postulation) Arthāpatti (अर्थापत्ति), postulation, derivation from circumstances.[220][224] In contemporary logic, this pramana is similar to circumstantial implication.[236] As example, if a person left in a boat on river earlier, and the time is now past the expected time of arrival, then the circumstances support the truth postulate that the person has arrived. Many Indian scholars considered this Pramana as invalid or at best weak, because the boat may have gotten delayed or diverted.[237] However, in cases such as deriving the time of a future sunrise or sunset, this method was asserted by the proponents to be reliable. Anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof) Anupalabdi (अनुपलब्धि), non-perception, negative/cognitive proof.[225] Anupalabdhi pramana suggests that knowing a negative, such as "there is no jug in this room" is a form of valid knowledge. If something can be observed or inferred or proven as non-existent or impossible, then one knows more than what one did without such means.[238] In Advaita school of Hindu philosophy, a valid conclusion is either sadrupa (positive) or asadrupa (negative) relation – both correct and valuable. Like other pramana, Indian scholars refined Anupalabdi to four types: non-perception of the cause, non-perception of the effect, non-perception of object, and non-perception of contradiction. Only two schools of Hinduism accepted and developed the concept "non-perception" as a pramana. Advaita considers this method as valid and useful when the other five pramanas fail in one's pursuit of knowledge and truth.[223][239] A variation of Anupaladbi, called Abhava (अभाव) has also been posited as an epistemic method. It means non-existence. Some scholars consider Anupalabdi to be same as Abhava,[220] while others consider Anupalabdi and Abhava as different.[239][240] Abhava-pramana has been discussed in Advaita in the context of Padārtha (पदार्थ, referent of a term). A Padartha is defined as that which is simultaneously Astitva (existent), Jneyatva (knowable) and Abhidheyatva (nameable).[241] Abhava was further refined in four types, by the schools of Hinduism that accepted it as a useful method of epistemology: dhvamsa (termination of what existed), atyanta-abhava (impossibility, absolute non-existence, contradiction), anyonya-abhava (mutual negation, reciprocal absence) and pragavasa (prior, antecedent non-existence).[223][241][242] Śabda (relying on testimony) Śabda (शब्द), relying on word, testimony of past or present reliable experts.[220][225] Hiriyanna explains Sabda-pramana as a concept which means reliable expert testimony. The schools of Hinduism which consider it epistemically valid suggest that a human being needs to know numerous facts, and with the limited time and energy available, he can learn only a fraction of those facts and truths directly.[243] He must rely on others, his parent, family, friends, teachers, ancestors and kindred members of society to rapidly acquire and share knowledge and thereby enrich each other's lives. This means of gaining proper knowledge is either spoken or written, but through Sabda (words).[243] The reliability of the source is important, and legitimate knowledge can only come from the Sabda of reliable sources.[225][243] The disagreement between Advaita and other schools of Hinduism has been on how to establish reliability.[244] Ethics Some claim, states Deutsch, "that Advaita turns its back on all theoretical and practical considerations of morality and, if not unethical, is at least 'a-ethical' in character".[245] However, adds Deutsch, ethics does have a firm place in this philosophy. Its ideology is permeated with ethics and value questions enter into every metaphysical and epistemological analysis, and it considers "an independent, separate treatment of ethics are unnecessary".[245][246] According to Advaita Vedānta, states Deutsch, there cannot be "any absolute moral laws, principles or duties", instead in its axiological view Atman is "beyond good and evil", and all values result from self-knowledge of the reality of "distinctionless Oneness" of one's real self, every other being and all manifestations of Brahman.[247] Advaitin ethics includes lack of craving, lack of dual distinctions between one's own soul and another being's, good and just Karma.[248] The values and ethics in Advaita Vedānta emanate from what it views as inherent in the state of liberating self-knowledge. This state, according to Rambachan, includes and leads to the understanding that "the self is the self of all, the knower of self sees the self in all beings and all beings in the self."[79] Such knowledge and understanding of the indivisibility of one's and other's Atman, Advaitins believe leads to "a deeper identity and affinity with all". It does not alienate or separate an Advaitin from his or her community, rather awakens "the truth of life's unity and interrelatedness".[79] These ideas are exemplified in the Isha Upanishad – a sruti for Advaita, as follows: One who sees all beings in the self alone, and the self of all beings, feels no hatred by virtue of that understanding. For the seer of oneness, who knows all beings to be the self, where is delusion and sorrow? — Isha Upanishad 6–7, Translated by A Rambachan[249] Adi Shankara, a leading proponent of Advaita, in verse 1.25 to 1.26 of his Upadeśasāhasrī, asserts that the Self-knowledge is understood and realized when one's mind is purified by the observation of Yamas (ethical precepts) such as Ahimsa (non-violence, abstinence from injuring others in body, mind and thoughts), Satya (truth, abstinence from falsehood), Asteya (abstinence from theft), Aparigraha (abstinence from possessiveness and craving) and a simple life of meditation and reflection.[250] Rituals and rites can help focus and prepare the mind for the journey to Self-knowledge,[251] however, Shankara discourages dogmatic ritual worship and oblations to Devas (deities), because that assumes the Self within is different than Brahman. The "doctrine of difference" is wrong, asserts Shankara, because, "he who knows the Brahman is one and he is another, does not know Brahman".[252] Elsewhere, in verses 1.26–1.28, the Advaita text Upadesasahasri states the ethical premise of equality of all beings. Any Bheda (discrimination), states Shankara, based on class or caste or parentage is a mark of inner error and lack of liberating knowledge.[253] This text states that the fully liberated person understands and practices the ethics of non-difference.[253] One, who is eager to realize this highest truth spoken of in the Sruti, should rise above the fivefold form of desire: for a son, for wealth, for this world and the next, and are the outcome of a false reference to the Self of Varna (castes, colors, classes) and orders of life. These references are contradictory to right knowledge, and reasons are given by the Srutis regarding the prohibition of the acceptance of difference. For when the knowledge that the one non-dual Atman (Self) is beyond phenomenal existence is generated by the scriptures and reasoning, there cannot exist a knowledge side by side that is contradictory or contrary to it. — Adi Shankara, Upadesha Sahasri 1.44, [254][255] Texts The Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gitā and Brahma Sutras are the central texts of the Advaita Vedānta tradition, providing doctrines about the identity of Atman and Brahman and their changeless nature.[256][257] Adi Shankara gave a nondualist interpretation of these texts in his commentaries. Adi Shankara's Bhashya (commentaries) have become central texts in the Advaita Vedānta philosophy, but are one among many ancient and medieval manuscripts available or accepted in this tradition.[20] The subsequent Advaita tradition has further elaborated on these sruti and commentaries. Adi Shankara is also credited for the famous text Nirvana Shatakam. Prasthanatrayi The Vedānta tradition provides exegeses of the Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras, and the Bhagavadgita, collectively called the Prasthanatrayi, literally, three sources.[17][256][257] The Upanishads,[note 22] or Śruti prasthāna; considered the Śruti (Vedic scriptures) foundation of Vedānta.[note 23][260][261][262] Most scholars, states Eliot Deutsch, are convinced that the Śruti in general, and the Upanishads in particular, express "a very rich diversity" of ideas, with the early Upanishads such as Brihadaranyaka Upanishad and Chandogya Upanishad being more readily amenable to Advaita Vedānta school's interpretation than the middle or later Upanishads.[263][264] In addition to the oldest Upanishads, states Williams, the Sannyasa Upanishads group composed in pre-Shankara times "express a decidedly Advaita outlook".[265] The Brahma Sutras, or Nyaya prasthana / Yukti prasthana; considered the reason-based foundation of Vedānta. The Brahma Sutras attempted to synthesize the teachings of the Upanishads. The diversity in the teachings of the Upanishads necessitated the systematization of these teachings. The only extant version of this synthesis is the Brahma Sutras of Badarayana. Like the Upanishads, Brahma Sutras is also an aphoristic text, and can be interpreted as a non-theistic Advaita Vedānta text or as a theistic Dvaita Vedānta text. This has led, states Stephen Phillips, to its varying interpretations by scholars of various sub-schools of Vedānta.[266] The Brahmasutra is considered by the Advaita school as the Nyaya Prasthana (canonical base for reasoning).[267] The Bhagavad Gitā, or Smriti prasthāna; considered the Smriti (remembered tradition) foundation of Vedānta.[267] It has been widely studied by Advaita scholars, including a commentary by Adi Shankara.[268][269] Textual authority The identity of Atman and Brahman, and their unchanging, eternal nature,[270] are basic doctrines in Advaita Vedānta. The school considers the knowledge claims in the Vedas to be the crucial part of the Vedas, not its karma-kanda (ritual injunctions).[256] The knowledge claims about self being identical to the nature of Atman and Brahman are found in the Upanishads, which Advaita Vedānta has regarded as "errorless revealed truth."[256] Nevertheless, states Koller, Advaita Vedantins did not entirely rely on revelation, but critically examined their teachings using reason and experience, and this led them to investigate and critique competing theories.[256] Advaita Vedānta, like all orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy, accepts as an epistemic premise that Śruti (Vedic literature) is a reliable source of knowledge.[271][272][273] The Śruti includes the four Vedas including its four layers of embedded texts – the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the early Upanishads.[274] Of these, the Upanishads are the most referred to texts in the Advaita school. The possibility of different interpretations of the Vedic literature, states Arvind Sharma, was recognized by ancient Indian scholars.[275][269] The Brahmasutra (also called Vedānta Sutra, composed in 1st millennium BCE) accepted this in verse 1.1.4 and asserts the need for the Upanishadic teachings to be understood not in piecemeal cherrypicked basis, rather in a unified way wherein the ideas in the Vedic texts are harmonized with other means of knowledge such as perception, inference and remaining pramanas.[275][267] This theme has been central to the Advaita school, making the Brahmasutra as a common reference and a consolidated textual authority for Advaita.[275][276] The Bhagavad Gitā, similarly in parts can be interpreted to be a monist Advaita text, and in other parts as theistic Dvaita text. It too has been widely studied by Advaita scholars, including a commentary by Adi Shankara.[277][269] History of Advaita Vedānta Gaudapada, one of the most important pre-Śaṅkara philosophers in Advaita tradition Advaita Vedānta existed prior to Adi Shankara but found in him its most influential expounder.[278] Pre-Shankara Advaita Vedānta Of the Vedānta-school before the composition of the Brahma Sutras (400–450 CE[279]), wrote Nakamura in 1950, almost nothing is known.[279] The two Advaita writings of pre-Shankara period, known to scholars such as Nakamura in the first half of 20th-century, were the Vākyapadīya, written by Bhartṛhari (second half 5th century[280]), and the Māndūkya-kārikā written by Gaudapada (7th century CE).[279] Scholarship after 1950 suggests that almost all Sannyasa Upanishads, which belong to the minor Upanishads and are of a later date than the major Upanishads, namely the first centuries CE,[note 24] and some of which are of a sectarian nature,[285] have a strong Advaita Vedānta outlook.[286][287][288] The Advaita Vedānta views in these ancient texts may be, states Patrick Olivelle, because major Hindu monasteries of this period (early medieaval period, starting mid 6th century CE) belonged to the Advaita Vedānta tradition, preserving only Advaita views, and recasting other texts into Advaita texts.[286] Earliest Vedānta – Upanishads and Brahma Sutras Main article: Brahma Sutras See also: Vedas, Upanishads, and Darsanas The Upanishads form the basic texts, of which Vedānta gives an interpretation.[289] The Upanishads do not contain "a rigorous philosophical inquiry identifying the doctrines and formulating the supporting arguments".[290][note 25] This philosophical inquiry was performed by the darsanas, the various philosophical schools.[292][note 26] Bādarāyana's Brahma Sutras The Brahma Sutras of Bādarāyana, also called the Vedānta Sutra,[294] were compiled in its present form around 400–450 CE,[295] but "the great part of the Sutra must have been in existence much earlier than that".[295] Estimates of the date of Bādarāyana's lifetime differ between 200 BCE and 200 CE.[296] The Brahma Sutra is a critical study of the teachings of the Upanishads, possibly "written from a Bhedābheda Vedāntic viewpoint."[web 5] It was and is a guide-book for the great teachers of the Vedantic systems.[294] Bādarāyana was not the first person to systematise the teachings of the Upanishads.[297] He refers to seven Vedantic teachers before him:[297] From the way in which Bādarāyana cites the views of others it is obvious that the teachings of the Upanishads must have been analyzed and interpreted by quite a few before him and that his systematization of them in 555 sutras arranged in four chapters must have been the last attempt, most probably the best.[297] Between Brahma Sutras and Shankara According to Nakamura, "there must have been an enormous number of other writings turned out in this period, but unfortunately all of them have been scattered or lost and have not come down to us today".[279] In his commentaries, Shankara mentions 99 different predecessors of his Sampradaya.[298] In the beginning of his commentary on the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad Shankara salutes the teachers of the Brahmavidya Sampradaya.[web 8] Pre-Shankara doctrines and sayings can be traced in the works of the later schools, which does give insight into the development of early Vedānta philosophy.[279] The names of various important early Vedānta thinkers have been listed in the Siddhitraya by Yamunācārya (c.1050), the Vedārthasamgraha by Rāmānuja (c.1050–1157), and the Yatīndramatadīpikā by Śrīnivāsa-dāsa.[279] Combined together,[279] at least fourteen thinkers are known to have existed between the composition of the Brahman Sutras and Shankara's lifetime.[279][note 27] Although Shankara is often considered to be the founder of the Advaita Vedānta school, according to Nakamura, comparison of the known teachings of these early Vedantins and Shankara's thought shows that most of the characteristics of Shankara's thought "were advocated by someone before Śankara".[299] Shankara "was the person who synthesized the Advaita-vāda which had previously existed before him".[299] In this synthesis, he was the rejuvenator and defender of ancient learning.[300] He was an unequalled commentator,[300] due to whose efforts and contributions the Advaita Vedānta assumed a dominant position within Indian philosophy.[300] Gaudapada and Māṇḍukya Kārikā Main article: Gaudapada Gaudapada (6th century)[301] was the teacher of Govinda Bhagavatpada and the grandteacher of Shankara. Gaudapada uses the concepts of Ajativada and Maya[302] to establish "that from the level of ultimate truth the world is a cosmic illusion,"[303] and "suggests that the whole of our waking experience is exactly the same as an illusory and insubstantial dream."[304] In contrast, Adi Shankara insists upon a distinction between waking experience and dreams.[304] Mandukya Karika Gaudapada wrote or compiled[305] the Māṇḍukya Kārikā, also known as the Gauḍapāda Kārikā or the Āgama Śāstra.[306] The Māṇḍukya Kārikā is a commentary in verse form on the Mandukya Upanishad, one of the shortest Upanishads consisting of just 13 prose sentences. Of the ancient literature related to Advaita Vedānta, the oldest surviving complete text is the Māṇḍukya Kārikā.[307] Many other texts with same type of teachings and which were older than Māṇḍukya Kārikā existed and this is unquestionable because other scholars and their views are cited by Gaudapada, Shankara and Anandagiri, according to Hajime Nakamura.[308] Gaudapada relied particularly on Mandukya Upanishad, as well as Brihadaranyaka and Chandogya Upanishads.[307] The Mandukya Upanishad was considered to be a Śruti before the era of Adi Shankara, but not treated as particularly important.[306] In later post-Shankara period its value became far more important, and regarded as expressing the essence of the Upanishad philosophy. The entire Karika became a key text for the Advaita school in this later era.[309][note 28] Shri Gaudapadacharya Math Main article: Shri Gaudapadacharya Math Around 740 AD Gaudapada founded Shri Gaudapadacharya Math[note 29], also known as Kavaḷē maṭha. It is located in Kavale, Ponda, Goa,[web 9] and is the oldest matha of the South Indian Saraswat Brahmins.[312][web 10] Adi Shankara Adi Shankara, 20th verse of Brahmajnanavalimala: ब्रह्म सत्यं जगन्मिथ्या जीवो ब्रह्मैव नापरः Brahman is real, the world is an illusion Brahman and Jiva are not different. Brahmajnanavalimala 1.20[313] Main article: Adi Shankara Adi Shankara (788–820), also known as Śaṅkara Bhagavatpādācārya and Ādi Śaṅkarācārya, represents a turning point in the development of Vedānta.[314] After the growing influence of Buddhism on Vedānta, culminating in the works of Gaudapada, Adi Shankara gave a Vedantic character to the Buddhistic elements in these works,[314] synthesising and rejuvenating the doctrine of Advaita.[300] Using ideas in ancient Indian texts, Shankara systematized the foundation for Advaita Vedānta in the 8th century CE, reforming Badarayana's Vedānta tradition.[315] His thematic focus extended beyond metaphysics and soteriology, and he laid a strong emphasis on Pramanas, that is epistemology or "means to gain knowledge, reasoning methods that empower one to gain reliable knowledge".[316] Rambachan, for example, summarizes the widely held view on one aspect of Shankara's epistemology before critiquing it as follows, According to these [widely represented contemporary] studies, Shankara only accorded a provisional validity to the knowledge gained by inquiry into the words of the Śruti (Vedas) and did not see the latter as the unique source (pramana) of Brahmajnana. The affirmations of the Śruti, it is argued, need to be verified and confirmed by the knowledge gained through direct experience (anubhava) and the authority of the Śruti, therefore, is only secondary.[277] Sengaku Mayeda concurs, adding Shankara maintained the need for objectivity in the process of gaining knowledge (vastutantra), and considered subjective opinions (purushatantra) and injunctions in Śruti (codanatantra) as secondary.[317] Mayeda cites Shankara's explicit statements emphasizing epistemology (pramana-janya) in section 1.18.133 of Upadesasahasri and section 1.1.4 of Brahmasutra-bhasya.[317][318] Adi Shankara cautioned against cherrypicking a phrase or verse out of context from Vedic literature, and remarked that the Anvaya (theme or purport) of any treatise can only be correctly understood if one attends to the Samanvayat Tatparya Linga, that is six characteristics of the text under consideration: The common in Upakrama (introductory statement) and Upasamhara (conclusions) Abhyasa (message repeated) Apurvata (unique proposition or novelty) Phala (fruit or result derived) Arthavada (explained meaning, praised point) Yukti (verifiable reasoning).[319][320] While this methodology has roots in the theoretical works of Nyaya school of Hinduism, Shankara consolidated and applied it with his unique exegetical method called Anvaya-Vyatireka, which states that for proper understanding one must "accept only meanings that are compatible with all characteristics" and "exclude meanings that are incompatible with any".[321][322] Hacker and Phillips note that this insight into rules of reasoning and hierarchical emphasis on epistemic steps is "doubtlessly the suggestion" of Shankara in Brahma-sutra, an insight that flowers in the works of his companion and disciple Padmapada.[323] Merrell-Wolff states that Shankara accepts Vedas and Upanishads as a source of knowledge as he develops his philosophical theses, yet he never rests his case on the ancient texts, rather proves each thesis, point by point using pranamas (epistemology), reason and experience.[324][325] Historical context See also: Late-Classical Age and Hinduism Middle Ages Shankara lived in the time of the so-called "Late classical Hinduism",[326] which lasted from 650 to 1100 CE.[326] This era was one of political instability that followed Gupta dynasty and King Harsha of the 7th century CE.[327] It was a time of social and cultural change as the ideas of Buddhism, Jainism, and various traditions within Hinduism were competing for members.[328][329] Buddhism in particular influenced India's spiritual traditions in the first 700 years of the 1st millennium CE.[327][330] Shankara and his contemporaries made a significant contribution in understanding Buddhism and the ancient Vedic traditions; they then transformed the extant ideas, particularly reforming the Vedānta tradition of Hinduism, making it India's most important tradition for more than a thousand years.[327] Writings Main article: Adi Shankara bibliography Adi Shankara is best known for his systematic reviews and commentaries (Bhasyas) on ancient Indian texts. Shankara's masterpiece of commentary is the Brahmasutrabhasya (literally, commentary on Brahma Sutra), a fundamental text of the Vedānta school of Hinduism.[276] His commentaries on ten Mukhya (principal) Upanishads are also considered authentic by scholars.[276][331] Other authentic works of Shankara include commentaries on the Bhagavad Gitā (part of his Prasthana Trayi Bhasya).[277] Shankara's Vivarana (tertiary notes) on the commentary by Vedavyasa on Yogasutras as well as those on Apastamba Dharma-sũtras (Adhyatama-patala-bhasya) are accepted by scholars as authentic works of Adi Shankara.[332][333] Among the Stotra (poetic works), the Daksinamurti Stotra, Bhajagovinda Stotra, Sivanandalahari, Carpata-panjarika, Visnu-satpadi, Harimide, Dasa-shloki, and Krishna-staka are likely to be authentic.[332][334] He also authored Upadesasahasri, his most important original philosophical work.[315][333] Of other original Prakaranas (प्रकरण, monographs, treatise), 76 works are attributed to Adi Shankara. Modern era Indian scholars Belvalkar and Upadhyaya accept five and thirty nine works, respectively, as authentic.[335] Several commentaries on Nrisimha-Purvatatapaniya and Shveshvatara Upanishads have been attributed to Adi Shankara, but their authenticity is highly doubtful.[331][336] Similarly, commentaries on several early and later Upanishads attributed to Shankara are rejected by scholars[337] as his works, and are likely works of later Advaita Vedānta scholars; these include the Kaushitaki Upanishad, Maitri Upanishad, Kaivalya Upanishad, Paramahamsa Upanishad, Sakatayana Upanishad, Mandala Brahmana Upanishad, Maha Narayana Upanishad, and Gopalatapaniya Upanishad.[336] The authenticity of Shankara being the author of Vivekacūḍāmaṇi[338] has been questioned, and "modern scholars tend to reject its authenticity as a work by Shankara."[339] The authorship of Shankara of his Mandukya Upanishad Bhasya and his supplementary commentary on Gaudapada's Māṇḍukya Kārikā has been disputed by Nakamura.[340] However, other scholars state that the commentary on Mandukya, which is actually a commentary on Madukya-Karikas by Gaudapada, may be authentic.[332][336] Influence of Shankara Shankara's status in the tradition of Advaita Vedānta is unparallelled. He travelled all over India to help restore the study of the Vedas.[341] His teachings and tradition form the basis of Smartism and have influenced Sant Mat lineages.[342] He introduced the Pañcāyatana form of worship, the simultaneous worship of five deities – Ganesha, Surya, Vishnu, Shiva, and Devi. Shankara explained that all deities were but different forms of the one Brahman, the invisible Supreme Being.[343] Benedict Ashley credits Adi Shankara for unifying two seemingly disparate philosophical doctrines in Hinduism, namely Atman and Brahman.[344] Isaeva states that Shankara's influence extended to reforming Hinduism, founding monasteries, edifying disciples, disputing opponents, and engaging in philosophic activity that, in the eyes of Indian tradition, helped revive "the orthodox idea of the unity of all beings" and Vedānta thought.[345] Some scholars doubt Shankara's early influence in India.[346] According to King and Roodurmun, until the 10th century Shankara was overshadowed by his older contemporary Mandana-Misra, who was considered to be the major representative of Advaita.[347][348] Other scholars state that the historical records for this period are unclear, and little reliable information is known about the various contemporaries and disciples of Shankara.[349] Several scholars suggest that the historical fame and cultural influence of Shankara grew centuries later, particularly during the era of the Muslim invasions and consequent devastation of India.[346][350] Many of Shankara's biographies were created and published in and after the 14th century, such as the widely cited Vidyaranya's Śankara-vijaya. Vidyaranya, also known as Madhava, who was the 12th Jagadguru of the Śringeri Śarada Pītham from 1380 to 1386,[351] inspired the re-creation of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire of South India in response to the devastation caused by the Islamic Delhi Sultanate.[350][352] He and his brothers, suggest Paul Hacker and other scholars,[346][350] wrote about Śankara as well as extensive Advaitic commentaries on the Vedas and Dharma. Vidyaranya was a minister in the Vijayanagara Empire and enjoyed royal support,[352] and his sponsorship and methodical efforts helped establish Shankara as a rallying symbol of values, spread historical and cultural influence of Shankara's Vedānta philosophies, and establish monasteries (mathas) to expand the cultural influence of Shankara and Advaita Vedānta.[346] Post-Shankara – early medieval times Sureśvara and Maṇḍana Miśra Main articles: Sureśvara and Maṇḍana Miśra Sureśvara (fl. 800–900 CE)[353] and Maṇḍana Miśra were contemporaries of Shankara, Sureśvara often (incorrectly) being identified with Maṇḍana Miśra.[354] Both explained Sankara "on the basis of their personal convictions".[354] Sureśvara has also been credited as the founder of a pre-Shankara branch of Advaita Vedānta.[353] Maṇḍana Miśra was a Mimamsa scholar and a follower of Kumarila, but also wrote a seminal text on Advaita that has survived into the modern era, the Brahma-siddhi.[355][356] According to tradition, Maṇḍana Miśra and his wife were defeated by Shankara in a debate, after which he became a follower of Shankara.[355] Yet, his attitude toward Shankara was that of a "self-confident rival teacher of Advaita",[357] and his influence was such that some regard the Brahma-siddhi to have "set forth a non-Shankaran brand of Advaita""[355] The "theory of error" set forth in this work became the normative Advaita Vedānta theory of error.[358] It was Vachaspati Misra's commentary on this work that linked it to Shankara's teaching.[359] His influential thesis in the Advaita tradition has been that errors are opportunities because they "lead to truth", and full correct knowledge requires that not only should one understand the truth but also examine and understand errors as well as what is not truth.[360] Hiriyanna and Kuppuswami Sastra have pointed out that Sureśvara and Maṇḍana Miśra had different views on various doctrinal points:[361] The locus of avidya:[361] according to Maṇḍana Miśra, the individual jiva is the locus of avidya, whereas Suresvara contends that the avidya regarding Brahman is located in Brahman.[361] These two different stances are also reflected in the opposing positions of the Bhamati school and the Vivarana school.[361] Liberation: according to Maṇḍana Miśra, the knowledge that arises from the Mahavakya is insufficient for liberation. Only the direct realization of Brahma is liberating, which can only be attained by meditation.[362] According to Suresvara, this knowledge is directly liberating, while meditation is at best a useful aid.[357][note 30] Advaita Vedānta sub-schools After Shankara's death, several sub-schools developed. Two of them still exist today, the Bhāmatī and the Vivarana.[web 11][298] Two defunct schools are the Pancapadika and Istasiddhi, which were replaced by Prakasatman's Vivarana school.[364] These schools worked out the logical implications of various Advaita doctrines. Two of the problems they encountered were the further interpretations of the concepts of māyā and avidya.[web 11] Padmapada – Pancapadika school Padmapada (c. 800 CE)[365] was a direct disciple of Shankara who wrote the Pancapadika, a commentary on the Sankara-bhaya.[365] Padmapada diverged from Shankara in his description of avidya, designating prakrti as avidya or ajnana.[366] Vachaspati Misra – Bhamati school Main articles: Bhamati and Vācaspati Miśra Vachaspati Misra (800–900 CE)[367] wrote the Brahmatattva-samiksa, a commentary on Maṇḍana Miśra's Brahma-siddhi, which provides the link between Mandana Misra and Shankara[359] and attempts to harmonise Shankara's thought with that of Mandana Misra.[web 11] According to Advaita tradition, Shankara reincarnated as Vachaspati Misra "to popularise the Advaita System through his Bhamati".[367] Only two works are known of Vachaspati Misra, the Brahmatattva-samiksa on Maṇḍana Miśra's Brahma-siddhi, and his Bhamati on the Sankara-bhasya, Shankara's commentary on the Brahma-sutras.[359] The name of the Bhamati sub-school is derived from this Bhamati.[web 11] The Bhamati school takes an ontological approach. It sees the Jiva as the source of avidya.[web 11] It sees meditation as the main factor in the acquirement of liberation, while the study of the Vedas and reflection are additional factors.[368] Prakasatman – Vivarana school Main article: Vivarana Prakasatman (c. 1200–1300)[364] wrote the Pancapadika-Vivarana, a commentary on the Pancapadika by Padmapadacharya.[364] The Vivarana lends its name to the subsequent school. According to Roodurmum, "[H]is line of thought [...] became the leitmotif of all subsequent developments in the evolution of the Advaita tradition."[364] The Vivarana school takes an epistemological approach. Prakasatman was the first to propound the theory of mulavidya or maya as being of "positive beginningless nature",[369] and sees Brahman as the source of avidya. Critics object that Brahman is pure consciousness, so it cannot be the source of avidya. Another problem is that contradictory qualities, namely knowledge and ignorance, are attributed to Brahman.[web 11] Vimuktatman – Ista-Siddhi Vimuktatman (c. 1200 CE)[370] wrote the Ista-siddhi.[370] It is one of the four traditional siddhi, together with Mandana's Brahma-siddhi, Suresvara's Naiskarmya-siddhi, and Madusudana's Advaita-siddhi.[371] According to Vimuktatman, absolute Reality is "pure intuitive consciousness".[372] His school of thought was eventually replaced by Prakasatman's Vivarana school.[364] Late medieval times (Islamic rule of India) – "Greater Advaita Vedānta" Michael s. Allen and Anand Venkatkrishnan note that Shankara is very well-studies, but "scholars have yet to provide even a rudimentary, let alone comprehensive account of the history of Advaita Vedānta in the centuries leading up to the colonial period."[373] Prominent teachers See also: Dashanami Sampradaya and List of teachers of Advaita Vedanta According to Sangeetha Menon, prominent names in the later Advaita tradition are:[web 12] Prakāsātman, Vimuktātman, Sarvajñātman (10th century)(see above) Śrī Harṣa, Citsukha (12th century) ānandagiri, Amalānandā (13th century) Vidyāraņya, Śaṅkarānandā (14th century) Sadānandā (15th century) Prakāṣānanda, Nṛsiṁhāśrama (16th century) Madhusūdhana Sarasvati, Dharmarāja Advarindra, Appaya Dīkśita (17th century) Influence of yogic tradition While Indologists like Paul Hacker and Wilhelm Halbfass took Shankara's system as the measure for an "orthodox" Advaita Vedānta, the living Advaita Vedānta tradition in medieval times was influenced by, and incorporated elements from, the yogic tradition and texts like the Yoga Vasistha and the Bhagavata Purana.[374] The Yoga Vasistha became an authoritative source text in the Advaita vedānta tradition in the 14th century, while Vidyāraņya's Jivanmuktiviveka (14th century) was influenced by the (Laghu-)Yoga-Vasistha, which in turn was influenced by Kashmir Shaivism.[375] Vivekananda's 19th century emphasis on nirvikalpa samadhi was preceded by medieval yogic influences on Advaita Vedānta. In the 16th and 17th centuries, some Nath and hatha yoga texts also came within the scope of the developing Advaita Vedānta tradition.[376] Development of central position Main article: Neo-Vedanta Highest Indian philosophy Already in medieval times, Advaita Vedānta came to be regarded as the highest of the Indian religious philosophies,[377] a development which was reinforced in modern times due to western interest in Advaita Vedānta, and the subsequent influence of western perceptions on Indian perceptions of Hinduism.[378] In contrast, King states that its present position was a response of Hindu intellectuals to centuries of Christian polemic aimed at establishing "Hindu inferiority complex" during the colonial rule of the Indian subcontinent.[379] The "humanistic, inclusivist" formulation, now called Neo-Vedānta, attempted to respond to this colonial stereotyping of "Indian culture was backward, superstitious and inferior to the West", states King. Advaita Vedānta was projected as the central philosophy of Hinduism, and Neo-Vedānta subsumed and incorporated Buddhist ideas thereby making the Buddha a part of the Vedānta tradition, all in an attempt to reposition the history of Indian culture. Thus, states King, neo-Vedānta developed as a reaction to western Orientalism and Perennialism.[380] With the efforts of Vivekananda, modern formulation of Advaita Vedānta has "become a dominant force in Indian intellectual thought", though Hindu beliefs and practices are diverse.[381] Unifying Hinduism Main article: Unifying Hinduism Advaita Vedānta came to occupy a central position in the classification of various Hindu traditions. To some scholars, it is with the arrival of Islamic rule, first in the form of Delhi Sultanate thereafter the Mughal Empire, and the subsequent persecution of Indian religions, Hindu scholars began a self-conscious attempts to define an identity and unity.[382][383] Between the twelfth and the fourteen century, according to Andrew Nicholson, this effort emerged with a classification of astika and nastika systems of Indian philosophies.[384] Certain thinkers, according to Nicholson thesis, began to retrospectively classify ancient thought into "six systems" (saddarsana) of mainstream Hindu philosophy.[385] Other scholars, acknowledges Nicholson, present an alternate thesis. The scriptures such as the Vedas, Upanishads and Bhagavad Gitā, texts such as Dharmasutras and Puranas, and various ideas that are considered to be paradigmatic Hinduism are traceable to being thousands of years old. Unlike Christianity and Islam, Hinduism as a religion does not have a single founder, rather it is a fusion of diverse scholarship where a galaxy of thinkers openly challenged each other's teachings and offered their own ideas.[385] The term "Hindu" too, states Arvind Sharma, appears in much older texts such as those in Arabic that record the Islamic invasion or regional rule of Indian subcontinent. Some of these texts have been dated to between the 8th and the 11th century.[386] Within these doxologies and records, Advaita Vedānta was given the highest position, since it was regarded to be most inclusive system.[387] Modern times (colonial rule and independence) According to Sangeetha Menon, Sadaśiva Brahmendra was a prominent 18th century Advaita Vedantin.[web 12] Influence on Hindu nationalism Main article: Hindu nationalism According to King, along with the consolidation of the British imperialist rule came orientalism wherein the new rulers viewed Indians through "colonially crafted lenses". In response, emerged Hindu nationalism for collective action against the colonial rule, against the caricature by Christian and Muslim communities, and for socio-political independence.[388] In this colonial era search of identity, Vedānta came to be regarded as the essence of Hinduism, and Advaita Vedānta came to be regarded as "then paradigmatic example of the mystical nature of the Hindu religion" and umbrella of "inclusivism".[389] This umbrella of Advaita Vedānta, according to King, "provided an opportunity for the construction of a nationalist ideology that could unite Hindus in their struggle against colonial oppression".[390] Among the colonial era intelligentsia, according to Anshuman Mondal, a professor of Literature specializing in post-colonial studies, the monistic Advaita Vedānta has been a major ideological force for Hindu nationalism. Mahatma Gandhi professed monism of Advaita Vedānta, though at times he also spoke with terms from mind-body dualism schools of Hinduism.[391] Other colonial era Indian thinkers, such as Vivekananda, presented Advaita Vedānta as an inclusive universal religion, a spirituality that in part helped organize a religiously infused identity, and the rise of Hindu nationalism as a counter weight to Islam-infused Muslim communitarian organizations such as the Muslim League, to Christianity-infused colonial orientalism and to religious persecution of those belonging to Indian religions.[392][383][393] Swami Vivekananda Main articles: Swami Vivekananda and Ramakrishna Mission A major proponent in the popularisation of this Universalist and Perennialist interpretation of Advaita Vedānta was Vivekananda,[394] who played a major role in the revival of Hinduism,[395] and the spread of Advaita Vedānta to the west via the Ramakrishna Mission. His interpretation of Advaita Vedānta has been called "Neo-Vedānta". Vivekananda discerned a universal religion, regarding all the apparent differences between various traditions as various manifestations of one truth.[396] He presented karma, bhakti, jnana and raja yoga as equal means to attain moksha,[397] to present Vedānta as a liberal and universal religion, in contrast to the exclusivism of other religions.[397] Vivekananda emphasised nirvikalpa samadhi as the spiritual goal of Vedānta, he equated it to the liberation in Yoga and encouraged Yoga practice he called Raja yoga.[398] This approach, however, is missing in historic Advaita texts.[399] In 1896, Vivekananda claimed that Advaita appeals to modern scientists: I may make bold to say that the only religion which agrees with, and even goes a little further than modern researchers, both on physical and moral lines is the Advaita, and that is why it appeals to modern scientists so much. They find that the old dualistic theories are not enough for them, do not satisfy their necessities. A man must have not only faith, but intellectual faith too".[web 13] According to Rambachan, Vivekananda interprets anubhava as to mean "personal experience", akin to religious experience, whereas Shankara used the term to denote liberating understanding of the sruti.[84][400][401] Vivekananda's claims about spirituality as "science" and modern, according to David Miller, may be questioned by well informed scientists, but it drew attention for being very different than how Christianity and Islam were being viewed by scientists and sociologists of his era.[402] Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Main article: Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, first a professor at Oxford University and later a President of India, further popularized Advaita Vedānta, presenting it as the essence of Hinduism.[web 14] According to Michael Hawley, a professor of Religious Studies, Radhakrishnan saw other religions, as well as "what Radhakrishnan understands as lower forms of Hinduism," as interpretations of Advaita Vedānta, thereby "in a sense Hindusizing all religions".[web 14] To him, the world faces a religious problem, where there is unreflective dogmatism and exclusivism, creating a need for "experiential religion" and "inclusivism". Advaita Vedānta, claimed Radhakrishnan, best exemplifies a Hindu philosophical, theological, and literary tradition that fulfills this need.[web 14][403][404] Radhakrishnan did not emphasize the differences between Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism versus Hinduism that he defined in terms of Advaita Vedānta, rather he tended to minimize their differences. This is apparent, for example, in his discussions of Buddhist "Madhyamika and Yogacara" traditions versus the Advaita Vedānta tradition.[404] Radhakrishnan metaphysics was grounded in Advaita Vedānta, but he reinterpreted Advaita Vedānta for contemporary needs and context.[web 14] He acknowledged the reality and diversity of the world of experience, which he saw as grounded in and supported by the transcendent metaphysical absolute concept (nirguna Brahman).[web 14][note 31] Radhakrishnan also reinterpreted Shankara's notion of maya. According to Radhakrishnan, maya is not a strict absolute idealism, but "a subjective misperception of the world as ultimately real."[web 14][406] Mahatama Gandhi Gandhi declared his allegiance to Advaita Vedānta, and was another popularizing force for its ideas.[407] According to Nicholas Gier, this to Gandhi meant the unity of God and humans, that all beings have the same one soul and therefore equality, that atman exists and is same as everything in the universe, ahimsa (non-violence) is the very nature of this atman.[407] Gandhi called himself advaitist many times, including his letters, but he believed that others have a right to a viewpoint different than his own because they come from a different background and perspective.[408][409] According to Gier, Gandhi did not interpret maya as illusion, but accepted that "personal theism" leading to "impersonal monism" as two tiers of religiosity.[407] Contemporary Advaita Vedānta Contemporary teachers are the orthodox Jagadguru of Sringeri Sharada Peetham; the more traditional teachers Sivananda Saraswati (1887–1963), Chinmayananda Saraswati (1916-1993),[web 15] Dayananda Saraswati (Arsha Vidya) (1930-2015), Swami Paramarthananda, Swami Tattvavidananda Sarasvati, Carol Whitfield (Radha), Sri Vasudevacharya [web 15] and less traditional teachers such as Narayana Guru.[web 15] According to Sangeetha Menon, prominent names in 20th century Advaita tradition are Shri Chandrashekhara Bharati Mahaswami, Chandrasekharendra Saraswati Swamigal, Sacchidānandendra Saraswati.[web 12] Influence on New religious movements Neo-Advaita Main article: Neo-Advaita Neo-Advaita is a New Religious Movement based on a popularised, western interpretation of Advaita Vedānta and the teachings of Ramana Maharshi.[410] Neo-Advaita is being criticised[411][note 32][413][note 33][note 34] for discarding the traditional prerequisites of knowledge of the scriptures[415] and "renunciation as necessary preparation for the path of jnana-yoga".[415][416] Notable neo-advaita teachers are H. W. L. Poonja,[417][410] his students Gangaji[418] Andrew Cohen[note 35], and Eckhart Tolle.[410] Non-dualism Main article: Nondualism Advaita Vedānta has gained attention in western spirituality and New Age, where various traditions are seen as driven by the same non-dual experience.[420] Nonduality points to "a primordial, natural awareness without subject or object".[web 20] It is also used to refer to interconnectedness, "the sense that all things are interconnected and not separate, while at the same time all things retain their individuality".[web 21] Sampradaya Monastic order: Advaita Mathas See also: Dashanami Sampradaya (Vidyashankara temple) at Sringeri Sharada Peetham, Shringeri Advaita Vedānta is not just a philosophical system, but also a tradition of renunciation. Philosophy and renunciation are closely related:[web 22] Most of the notable authors in the advaita tradition were members of the sannyasa tradition, and both sides of the tradition share the same values, attitudes and metaphysics.[web 22] Shankara organized monks under 10 names and established mathas for them. These mathas contributed to the influence of Shankara, which was "due to institutional factors". The mathas which he established remain active today, and preserve the teachings and influence of Shankara, "while the writings of other scholars before him came to be forgotten with the passage of time".[421] Shri Gaudapadacharya Math Main article: Shri Gaudapadacharya Math Around 740 AD Gaudapada founded Shri Gaudapadacharya Math[note 36], also known as Kavaḷē maṭha. It is located in Kavale, Ponda, Goa,[web 23] and is the oldest matha of the South Indian Saraswat Brahmins.[312][web 24] Shankara's monastic tradition Shankara, himself considered to be an incarnation of Shiva,[web 22] established the Dashanami Sampradaya, organizing a section of the Ekadandi monks under an umbrella grouping of ten names.[web 22] Several Hindu monastic and Ekadandi traditions, however, remained outside the organisation of the Dasanāmis.[422][423][424] Sankara organised the Hindu monks of these ten sects or names under four Maṭhas (Sanskrit: मठ) (monasteries), called the Amnaya Mathas, with the headquarters at Dvārakā in the West, Jagannatha Puri in the East, Sringeri in the South and Badrikashrama in the North.[web 22] Each math was first headed by one of his four main disciples, and the tradition continues since then.[note 37] According to another tradition in Kerala, after Sankara's samadhi at Vadakkunnathan Temple, his disciples founded four mathas in Thrissur, namely Naduvil Madhom, Thekke Madhom, Idayil Madhom and Vadakke Madhom. The table below gives an overview of the four Amnaya Mathas founded by Adi Shankara, and their details.[web 25] Shishya (lineage)	Direction	Maṭha	Mahāvākya	Veda	Sampradaya Padmapāda	East	Govardhana Pīṭhaṃ	Prajñānam brahma (Consciousness is Brahman)	Rig Veda	Bhogavala Sureśvara	South	Sringeri Śārada Pīṭhaṃ	Aham brahmāsmi (I am Brahman)	Yajur Veda	Bhūrivala Hastāmalakācārya	West	Dvāraka Pīṭhaṃ	Tattvamasi (That thou art)	Sama Veda	Kitavala Toṭakācārya	North	Jyotirmaṭha Pīṭhaṃ	Ayamātmā brahma (This Atman is Brahman)	Atharva Veda	Nandavala Monks of these ten orders differ in part in their beliefs and practices, and a section of them is not considered to be restricted to specific changes made by Shankara. While the dasanāmis associated with the Sankara maths follow the procedures enumerated by Adi Śankara, some of these orders remained partly or fully independent in their belief and practices; and outside the official control of the Sankara maths. The advaita sampradaya is not a Saiva sect,[web 22][427] despite the historical links with Shaivism.[note 38] Nevertheless, contemporary Sankaracaryas have more influence among Saiva communities than among Vaisnava communities.[web 22] Relationship with other forms of Vedānta The Advaita Vedānta ideas, particularly of 8th century Adi Shankara, were challenged by theistic Vedānta philosophies that emerged centuries later, such as the 11th-century Vishishtadvaita (qualified nondualism) of Ramanuja, and the 14th-century Dvaita (theistic dualism) of Madhvacharya.[428] Vishishtadvaita Main article: Vishishtadvaita Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita school and Shankara's Advaita school are both nondualism Vedānta schools,[429][430] both are premised on the assumption that all souls can hope for and achieve the state of blissful liberation; in contrast, Madhvacharya and his Dvaita subschool of Vedānta believed that some souls are eternally doomed and damned.[431][432] Shankara's theory posits that only Brahman and causes are metaphysical unchanging reality, while the empirical world (Maya) and observed effects are changing, illusive and of relative existence.[433][434] Spiritual liberation to Shankara is the full comprehension and realization of oneness of one's unchanging Atman (soul) as the same as Atman in everyone else as well as being identical to the nirguna Brahman.[430][435][436] In contrast, Ramanuja's theory posits both Brahman and the world of matter are two different absolutes, both metaphysically real, neither should be called false or illusive, and saguna Brahman with attributes is also real.[434] God, like man, states Ramanuja, has both soul and body, and all of the world of matter is the glory of God's body.[429] The path to Brahman (Vishnu), asserted Ramanuja, is devotion to godliness and constant remembrance of the beauty and love of personal god (saguna Brahman, Vishnu), one which ultimately leads one to the oneness with nirguna Brahman.[429][433][434] Shuddhadvaita Main article: Shuddhadvaita Vallabhacharya (1479–1531 CE), the proponent of the philosophy of Shuddhadvaita Brahmvad enunciates that Ishvara has created the world without connection with any external agency such as Maya (which itself is his power) and manifests Himself through the world.[437] That is why shuddhadvaita is known as 'Unmodified transformation' or 'Avikṛta Pariṇāmavāda'. Brahman or Ishvara desired to become many, and he became the multitude of individual souls and the world. Vallabha recognises Brahman as the whole and the individual as a 'part' (but devoid of bliss).[438] Dvaita Main article: Dvaita Madhvacharya was also a critic of Advaita Vedānta. Advaita's nondualism asserted that Atman (soul) and Brahman are identical, there is interconnected oneness of all souls and Brahman, and there are no pluralities.[439][440] Madhva in contrast asserted that Atman (soul) and Brahman are different, only Vishnu is the Lord (Brahman), individual souls are also different and depend on Vishnu, and there are pluralities.[439][440] Madhvacharya stated that both Advaita Vedānta and Mahayana Buddhism were a nihilistic school of thought.[441] Madhvacharya wrote four major texts, including Upadhikhandana and Tattvadyota, primarily dedicated to criticizing Advaita.[441] Present-day Krishna-devotees are highly critical of Advaita Vedānta, regarding it as māyāvāda, identical to Mahayana Buddhism.[web 26][web 27] Historical influence Mahatma Gandhi stated "I am an advaitist".[408][409] Scholars are divided on the historical influence of Advaita Vedānta. Some Indologists state that it is one of the most studied Hindu philosophy and the most influential schools of classical Indian thought.[442][28][443] Advaita Vedānta, states Eliot Deutsch, "has been and continues to be the most widely accepted system of thought among philosophers in India, and it is, we believe, one of the greatest philosophical achievements to be found in the East or the West".[444] Smarta Tradition Main article: Smarta Tradition The Smarta tradition of Hinduism is an ancient tradition,[note 39] particularly found in south and west India, that revers all Hindu divinities as a step in their spiritual pursuit.[446][447][448] Their worship practice is called Panchayatana puja.[449][446] The worship symbolically consists of five deities: Shiva, Vishnu, Devi or Durga, Surya and an Ishta Devata or any personal god of devotee's preference.[447][450] In the Smarta tradition, Advaita Vedānta ideas combined with bhakti are its foundation. Adi Shankara is regarded as the greatest teacher[448] and reformer of the Smarta.[451] According to Alf Hiltebeitel, Shankara's Advaita Vedānta and practices became the doctrinal unifier of previously conflicting practices with the smarta tradition.[note 40] Philosophically, the Smarta tradition emphasizes that all images and statues (murti), or just five marks or any anicons on the ground, are visibly convenient icons of spirituality saguna Brahman.[453][449] The multiple icons are seen as multiple representations of the same idea, rather than as distinct beings. These serve as a step and means to realizing the abstract Ultimate Reality called nirguna Brahman. The ultimate goal in this practice is to transition past the use of icons, then follow a philosophical and meditative path to understanding the oneness of Atman (soul, self) and Brahman – as "That art Thou".[453][454] Other Hindu traditions Within the ancient and medieval texts of Hindu traditions, such as Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Shaktism, the ideas of Advaita Vedānta have had a major influence. Advaita Vedānta influenced Krishna Vaishnavism in the different parts of India.[455] One of its most popular text, the Bhagavata Purana, adopts and integrates in Advaita Vedānta philosophy.[456][457][458] The Bhagavata Purana is generally accepted by scholars to have been composed in the second half of 1st millennium CE.[459][460] In the ancient and medieval literature of Shaivism, called the Āgamas, the influence of Advaita Vedānta is once again prominent.[461][462][463] Of the 92 Āgamas, ten are Dvaita texts, eighteen are Bhedabheda, and sixty-four are Advaita texts.[464][465] According to Natalia Isaeva, there is an evident and natural link between 6th-century Gaudapada's Advaita Vedānta ideas and Kashmir Shaivism.[466] Shaktism, the Hindu tradition where a goddess is considered identical to Brahman, has similarly flowered from a syncretism of the monist premises of Advaita Vedānta and dualism premises of Samkhya–Yoga school of Hindu philosophy, sometimes referred to as Shaktadavaitavada (literally, the path of nondualistic Shakti).[467][468][469] Other influential ancient and medieval classical texts of Hinduism such as the Yoga Yajnavalkya, Yoga Vashishta, Avadhuta Gitā, Markandeya Purana and Sannyasa Upanishads predominantly incorporate premises and ideas of Advaita Vedānta.[470][471][472] Relationship with Buddhism See also: Buddhist influences on Advaita Vedanta Advaita Vedānta and Mahayana Buddhism share similarities and have differences,[473][474] their relationship a subject of dispute among scholars.[475] The similarities between Advaita and Buddhism have attracted Indian and Western scholars attention,[476] and have also been criticised by concurring schools. The similarities have been interpreted as Buddhist influences on Advaita Vedānta, while others deny such influences, or see them as variant expressions.[477] According to Daniel Ingalls, the Japanese Buddhist scholarship has argued that Adi Shankara did not understand Buddhism.[475] Some Hindu scholars criticized Advaita for its Maya and non-theistic doctrinal similarities with Buddhism.[478][479] Ramanuja, the founder of Vishishtadvaita Vedānta, accused Adi Shankara of being a Prachanna Bauddha, that is, a "crypto-Buddhist",[480] and someone who was undermining theistic Bhakti devotionalism.[479] The non-Advaita scholar Bhaskara of the Bhedabheda Vedānta tradition, similarly around 800 CE, accused Shankara's Advaita as "this despicable broken down Mayavada that has been chanted by the Mahayana Buddhists", and a school that is undermining the ritual duties set in Vedic orthodoxy.[479] A few Buddhist scholars made the opposite criticism in the medieval era toward their Buddhist opponents. In the sixth century CE, for example, the Mahayana Buddhist scholar Bhaviveka redefined Vedantic concepts to show how they fit into Madhyamaka concepts,[481] and "equate[d] the Buddha's Dharma body with Brahman, the ultimate reality of the Upanishads."[482] In his Madhyamakahṛdayakārikaḥ, Bhaviveka stages a Hinayana (Theravada) interlocutor, who accuses Mahayana Buddhists of being "crypto-Vedantins".[483][484][note 41] Medieval era Tibetan Gelugpa scholars accused the Jonang school of being "crypto-Vedantist."[485][486][note 42] Contemporary scholar David Kalupahana called the seventh century Buddhist scholar Chandrakirti a "crypto-Vedantist", a view rejected by scholars of Madhayamika Buddhism.[487] The Advaita Vedānta tradition has historically rejected accusations of crypto-Buddhism highlighting their respective views on Atman, Anatta and Brahman.[474] Similarities with Buddhism According to scholars, the influence of Mahayana Buddhism on Advaita Vedānta has been significant.[479][488] Advaita Vedānta and various other schools of Hindu philosophy share numerous terminology, doctrines and dialectical techniques with Buddhism.[489][490] According to a 1918 paper by the Buddhism scholar O. Rozenberg, "a precise differentiation between Brahmanism and Buddhism is impossible to draw."[489] Both traditions hold that "the empirical world is transitory, a show of appearances",[491][492] and both admit "degrees of truth or existence".[493] Both traditions emphasize the human need for spiritual liberation (moksha, nirvana, kaivalya), however with different assumptions.[494][note 43] Adi Shankara, states Natalia Isaeva, incorporated "into his own system a Buddhist notion of maya which had not been minutely elaborated in the Upanishads".[489] Similarly, there are many points of contact between Buddhism's Vijnanavada and Shankara's Advaita.[496] According to Frank Whaling, the similarities between Advaita Vedānta and Buddhism are not limited to the terminology and some doctrines, but also includes practice. The monastic practices and monk tradition in Advaita are similar to those found in Buddhism.[479] Dasgupta and Mohanta suggest that Buddhism and Shankara's Advaita Vedānta represent "different phases of development of the same non-dualistic metaphysics from the Upanishadic period to the time of Sankara."[497][note 44] The influence of Mahayana Buddhism on other religions and philosophies was not limited to Vedānta. Kalupahana notes that the Visuddhimagga of Theravada Buddhism tradition contains "some metaphysical speculations, such as those of the Sarvastivadins, the Sautrantikas, and even the Yogacarins".[500] According to John Plott, We must emphasize again that generally throughout the Gupta Dynasty, and even more so after its decline, there developed such a high degree of syncretism and such toleration of all points of view that Mahayana Buddhism had been Hinduized almost as much as Hinduism had been Buddhaized.[501] Gaudapada The influence of Buddhist doctrines on Gaudapada has been a vexed question.[502][503] One school of scholars, such as Bhattacharya and Raju, state that Gaudapada took over the Buddhist doctrines that ultimate reality is pure consciousness (vijñapti-mātra)[504][note 45] and "that the nature of the world is the four-cornered negation, which is the structure of Māyā".[504][507] Of particular interest is Chapter Four of Gaudapada's text Karika, in which according to Bhattacharya, two karikas refer to the Buddha and the term Asparsayoga is borrowed from Buddhism.[502] According to Murti, "the conclusion is irresistible that Gaudapada, a Vedānta philosopher, is attempting an Advaitic interpretation of Vedānta in the light of the Madhyamika and Yogacara doctrines. He even freely quotes and appeals to them."[310] However, adds Murti, the doctrines are unlike Buddhism. Chapter One, Two and Three are entirely Vedantin and founded on the Upanishads, with little Buddhist flavor.[310] Further, state both Murti and King, no Vedānta scholars who followed Gaudapada ever quoted from Chapter Four, they only quote from the first three.[310][311] According to Sarma, "to mistake him [Gaudapada] to be a hidden or open Buddhist is absurd".[508] The doctrines of Gaudapada and Buddhism are totally opposed, states Murti:[310] We have been talking of borrowing, influence and relationship in rather general terms. It is necessary to define the possible nature of the borrowing, granting that it did take place. (...) The Vedantins stake everything on the Atman (Brahman) and accept the authority of the Upanishads. We have pointed out at length the Nairatmya standpoint of Buddhism and its total opposition to the Atman (soul, substance, the permanent and universal) in any form. — TRV Murti, The Central Philosophy of Buddhism[509] Advaitins have traditionally challenged the Buddhist influence thesis.[502] Modern scholarship generally accepts that Gaudapada was influenced by Buddhism, at least in terms of using Buddhist terminology to explain his ideas, but adds that Gaudapada was a Vedantin and not a Buddhist.[502] Gaudapada adopted some Buddhist terminology and borrowed its doctrines to his Vedantic goals, much like early Buddhism adopted Upanishadic terminology and borrowed its doctrines to Buddhist goals; both used pre-existing concepts and ideas to convey new meanings.[501][473] While there is shared terminology, the Advaita doctrines of Gaudapada and Buddhism are fundamentally different.[310][510] Differences from Buddhism Atman and anatta Advaita Vedānta holds the premise, "Soul exists, and Soul (or self, Atman) is a self evident truth". Buddhism, in contrast, holds the premise, "Atman does not exist, and An-atman (or Anatta, non-self)[511] is self evident".[512][513] Chakravarthi Ram-Prasad gives a more nuanced view, stating that the Advaitins "assert a stable subjectivity, or a unity of consciousness through all the specific states of indivuated consciousness, but not an individual subject of consciousness [...] the Advaitins split immanent reflexivity from 'mineness'."[514] In Buddhism, Anatta (Pali, Sanskrit cognate An-atman) is the concept that in human beings and living creatures, there is no "eternal, essential and absolute something called a soul, self or atman".[515] Buddhist philosophy rejects the concept and all doctrines associated with atman, call atman as illusion (maya), asserting instead the theory of "no-self" and "no-soul."[512][516] Most schools of Buddhism, from its earliest days, have denied the existence of the "self, soul" in its core philosophical and ontological texts. In contrast to Advaita, which describes knowing one's own soul as identical with Brahman as the path to nirvana, in its soteriological themes Buddhism has defined nirvana as the state of a person who knows that he or she has "no self, no soul".[515][517] The Upanishadic inquiry fails to find an empirical correlate of the assumed Atman, but nevertheless assumes its existence,[518] and Advaitins "reify consciousness as an eternal self."[519] In contrast, the Buddhist inquiry "is satisfied with the empirical investigation which shows that no such Atman exists because there is no evidence." states Jayatilleke.[518] Yet, some Buddhist texts chronologically placed in the 1st millennium of common era, such as the Mahayana tradition's Tathāgatagarbha sūtras suggest self-like concepts, variously called Tathagatagarbha or Buddha nature.[520][521] These have been controversial idea in Buddhism, and "eternal self" concepts have been generally rejected. In modern era studies, scholars such as Wayman and Wayman state that these "self-like" concepts are neither self nor sentient being, nor soul, nor personality.[522][523] Some scholars posit that the Tathagatagarbha Sutras were written to promote Buddhism to non-Buddhists.[524][525][526] Epistemology The epistemological foundations of Buddhism and Advaita Vedānta are different. Buddhism accepts two valid means to reliable and correct knowledge – perception and inference, while Advaita Vedānta accepts six (described elsewhere in this article).[222][239][527] However, some Buddhists in history, have argued that Buddhist scriptures are a reliable source of spiritual knowledge, corresponding to Advaita's Śabda pramana, however Buddhists have treated their scriptures as a form of inference method.[528] Ontology Advaita Vedānta posits a substance ontology, an ontology which holds that underlying the change and impermanence of empirical reality is an unchanging and permanent absolute reality, like an eternal substance it calls Atman-Brahman.[529] In its substance ontology, as like other philosophies, there exist a universal, particulars and specific properties and it is the interaction of particulars that create events and processes.[530] In contrast, Buddhism posits a process ontology, also called as "event ontology".[531][530] According to the Buddhist thought, particularly after the rise of ancient Mahayana Buddhism scholarship, there is neither empirical nor absolute permanent reality and ontology can be explained as a process.[531][532][note 46] There is a system of relations and interdependent phenomena (pratitya samutpada) in Buddhist ontology, but no stable persistent identities, no eternal universals nor particulars. Thought and memories are mental constructions and fluid processes without a real observer, personal agency or cognizer in Buddhism. In contrast, in Advaita Vedānta, like other schools of Hinduism, the concept of self (atman) is the real on-looker, personal agent and cognizer.[534] The Pali Abdhidhamma and Theravada Buddhism considered all existence as dhamma, and left the ontological questions about reality and the nature of dhamma unexplained.[531] According to Renard, Advaita's theory of three levels of reality is built on the two levels of reality found in the Madhyamika.[535] Shankara on Buddhism A central concern for Shankara, in his objections against Buddhism, is what he perceives as nihilism of the Buddhists.[536] Shankara states that there "must be something beyond cognition, namely a cognizer,"[537] which he asserts is the self-evident Atman or witness.[538] Buddhism, according to Shankara, denies the cognizer. He also considers the notion of Brahman as pure knowledge and "the quintessence of positive reality."[536] The teachings in Brahma Sutras, states Shankara, differ from both the Buddhist realists and the Buddhist idealists. Shankara elaborates on these arguments against various schools of Buddhism, partly presenting refutations which were already standard in his time, and partly offering his own objections.[539] Shankara's original contribution in explaining the difference between Advaita and Buddhism was his "argument for identity" and the "argument for the witness".[540] In Shankara's view, the Buddhist are internally inconsistent in their theories, because "the reservoir-consciousness that [they] set up, being momentary, is no better than ordinary consciousness. Or, if [they] allow the reservoir-consciousness to be lasting, [they] destroy [their] theory of momentariness."[541] In response to the idealists, he notes that their alaya-vijnana, or store-house consciousness, runs counter to the Buddhist theory of momentariness.[536] With regard to the Sunyavada (Madhyamaka), Shankara states that "being contradictory to all valid means of knowledge, we have not thought worth while to refute" and "common sense (loka-vyavahara) cannot be denied without the discovery of some other truth".[542] Reception Advaita Vedānta is most often regarded as an idealist monism.[30][32] According to King, Advaita Vedānta developed "to its ultimate extreme" the monistic ideas already present in the Upanishads.[543] In contrast, states Milne, it is misleading to call Advaita Vedānta "monistic," since this confuses the "negation of difference" with "conflation into one."[544] Advaita is a negative term (a-dvaita), states Milne, which denotes the "negation of a difference," between subject and object, or between perceiver and perceived. [544] According to Deutsch, Advaita Vedānta teaches monistic oneness, however without the multiplicity premise of alternate monism theories.[545] According to Jacqueline Hirst, Adi Shankara positively emphasizes "oneness" premise in his Brahma-sutra Bhasya 2.1.20, attributing it to all the Upanishads.[546] Nicholson states Advaita Vedānta contains realistic strands of thought, both in its oldest origins and in Shankara's writings.[42] See also Cause and effect in Advaita Vedānta Kashmir Shaivism Pandeism Pantheism Notes Timalsina p. 941: "Puruṣavāda appears a preferred terminology in the early periods, before the time of Sankara." See also Purusha.[5] Literally: end or the goal of the Vedas. For an alternate English translation: Robert Hume, The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, BU 4.3.32, Oxford University Press, p. 138. सलिले एकस् द्रष्टा अद्वैतस् भवति एष ब्रह्मलोकस् सम्राट् ति ह एनम् उवाच अनुशशास याज्ञवल्क्यस् एषा अस्य परमा गतिस् एषास्य परमा सम्पद् An ocean, a single seer without duality becomes he whose world is Brahman, O King, Yajnavalkya instructed This is his supreme way. This is his supreme achievement. —Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.3.32[50]	—Transl: Stephen Phillips[51][note 3] A reference to Non-duality is also made in the Chandogya Upanishad, within a dialogue between the Vedic sage Uddalaka Aruni and his son Svetaketu, as follows : सदेव सोम्येदमग्र आसीत एकमेवा अद्वितीयम् तद्धैक आहुरसदेवेदमग्र आसीदेकमेवाद्वितीयं तस्मादसतः सज्जायत Somya, before this world was manifest, there was only existence, one without duality On this subject, some maintain that before this world was manifest, there was only non-existence, one without a second. Out of that non-existence, existence emerged. —Chandogya Upanishad 6.2.1[52]	—Chandogya Upanishad It is not a philosophy in the western meaning of the word, according to Milne.[55] Samkhya argues that Purusha is the efficient cause of all existence while Prakriti is its material cause.[61] Advaita, like all Vedanta schools, states that Purusha/Brahman (both refer to the same concept) is both the efficient and the material cause, "that from which the origination, subsistence, and dissolution of this universe proceed." What created all existence is also present in and reflected in all beings and inert matter, the creative principle was and is everywhere, always.[62]' First, how did sat Brahman without any distinction become manifold universe? second, how did cit Brahman create material world? third, if ananda Brahman is pure bliss, why did the empirical world of sufferings arise? These are the questions that Advaita Vedanta thinkers have historically attempted to answer, as did the non-Advaita schools of Hinduism.[63] Reason clarifies the truth and removes objections, according to the Advaita school, however it believes that pure logic cannot lead to philosophical truths and only experience and meditative insights do. The Sruti, it believes is a collection of experience and meditative insights about liberating knowledge.[68] Indian philosophy emphasises that "every acceptable philosophy should aid man in realising the Purusarthas, the chief aims of human life:[70] Dharma: the right way to life, the "duties and obligations of the individual toward himself and the society as well as those of the society toward the individual";[71] Artha: the means to support and sustain one's life; Kāma: pleasure and enjoyment; Mokṣa: liberation, release. The true Self is itself just that pure consciousness, without which nothing can be known in any way.(...) And that same true Self, pure consciousness, is not different from the ultimate world Principle, Brahman  (...) Brahman (=the true Self, pure consciousness) is the only Reality (sat), since It is untinged by difference, the mark of ignorance, and since It is the one thing that is not sublimatable.[75] "Consciousness",[99][web 2] "intelligence",[100][101] "wisdom" "the Absolute",[99][web 2] "infinite",[web 2] "the Highest truth"[web 2] Puligandla: "Any philosophy worthy of its title should not be a mere intellectual exercise but should have practical application in enabling man to live an enlightened life. A philosophy which makes no difference to the quality and style of our life is no philosophy, but an empty intellectual construction."[102] These characteristics and steps are described in various Advaita texts, such as by Shankara in Chapter 1.1 of Brahmasutrabhasya,[109] and in the Bhagavad Gita Chapter 10 Example self-restraints mentioned in Hindu texts: one must refrain from any violence that causes injury to others, refrain from starting or propagating deceit and falsehood, refrain from theft of other's property, refrain from sexually cheating on one's partner, and refrain from avarice.[111][112][113] Brahman is also defined as: The unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent reality which is all matter, energy, time, space, being, and everything beyond in this Universe; that is the one supreme, universal spirit without a second.[122][123] The one supreme, all pervading Spirit that is the origin and support of the phenomenal universe.[124] The supreme self. Puligandla states it as "the unchanging reality amidst and beyond the world",[125] The Self-existent, the Absolute and the Imperishable. Brahman is indescribable.[126] The "principle of the world",[127] the "absolute",[128] the "general, universal",[129] the "cosmic principle",[130] the "ultimate that is the cause of everything including all gods",[131] the "knowledge",[132] the "soul, sense of self of each human being that is fearless, luminuous, exalted and blissful",[133] the "essence of liberation, of spiritual freedom",[134] the "universe within each living being and the universe outside",[133] the "essence and everything innate in all that exists inside, outside and everywhere".[135] It provides the "stuff" from which everything is made It sets everything into working, into existence Svarupalakshana, qualities, definition based on essence and other sub-schools of Vedanta with the concept of Maya.[189] According to Hugh Nicholson, "the definitive study on the development of the concept of vivarta in Indian philosophy, and in Advaita Vedanta in particular, remains Hacker's Vivarta.[203] To Shankara, the word maya has hardly any terminological weight.[204] Many in number, the Upanishads developed in different schools at various times and places, some in the Vedic period and others in the medieval or modern era (the names of up to 112 Upanishads have been recorded).[258] All major commentators have considered the twelve to thirteen oldest of these texts as the principal Upanishads and as the foundation of Vedanta. The Śruti includes the four Vedas including its four layers of embedded texts – the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas, and the early Upanishads.[259] According to Sprockhoff, the group of older Sannyasa Upanishads – Aruni, Kundika, Kathashruti, Paramahamsa, Jabala and Brahma – were composed before the 3rd-century CE, likely in the centuries before or after the start of the common era,[281] while the Asrama Upanishad is dated to the 3rd-century.[282][283] Olivelle disagrees with Sprockhoff, dating the group of oldest Sannyasa Upanishads to the first centuries of the common era.[284] Nevertheless, Balasubramanian argues that since the basic ideas of the Vedanta systems are derived from the Vedas, the Vedantic philosophy is as old as the Vedas.[291] Deutsch and Dalvi point out that, in the Indian context, texts "are only part of a tradition which is preserved in its purest form in the oral transmission as it has been going on".[293] Bhartŗhari (c.450–500), Upavarsa (c.450–500), Bodhāyana (c.500), Tanka (Brahmānandin) (c.500–550), Dravida (c.550), Bhartŗprapañca (c.550), Śabarasvāmin (c.550), Bhartŗmitra (c.550–600), Śrivatsānka (c.600), Sundarapāndya (c.600), Brahmadatta (c.600–700), Gaudapada (c.640–690), Govinda (c.670–720), Mandanamiśra (c.670–750).[279] Nakamura notes that there are contradictions in doctrine between the four chapters.[305] According to Murti, the conclusion from Mandukya Karika is irresistible that Gaudapada is attempting an advaitic interpretation of Vedanta school of Hinduism in the light of the Madhyamika and Yogcara doctrines of Buddhism.[310] However, adds Murti, the doctrines are unlike Buddhism. The first three chapters of the Karika are founded on the Upanishads, with little Buddhist flavor.[310] Chapter Four is unlike the first three, and shows Buddhist terms and influence.[311] Further, according to Murti, and Richard King, no Vedanta scholars who followed Gaudapada ever quoted from Chapter Four of Karika, they only quote from the first three.[310][311] Sanskrit: श्री संस्थान गौडपदाचार्य मठ, Śrī Sansthāna Gauḍapadācārya Maṭha According to both Roodurum and Isaeva, Sureśvara stated that mere knowledge of the identity of Jiva and Brahman is not enough for liberation, which requires prolonged meditation on this identity.[353][363] Neo-Vedanta seems to be closer to Bhedabheda-Vedanta than to Shankara's Advaita Vedanta, with the acknowledgement of the reality of the world. Nicholas F. Gier: "Ramakrsna, Svami Vivekananda, and Aurobindo (I also include M.K. Gandhi) have been labeled "neo-Vedantists," a philosophy that rejects the Advaitins' claim that the world is illusory. Aurobindo, in his The Life Divine, declares that he has moved from Sankara's "universal illusionism" to his own "universal realism" (2005: 432), defined as metaphysical realism in the European philosophical sense of the term."[405] Marek: "Wobei der Begriff Neo-Advaita darauf hinweist, dass sich die traditionelle Advaita von dieser Strömung zunehmend distanziert, da sie die Bedeutung der übenden Vorbereitung nach wie vor als unumgänglich ansieht. (The term Neo-Advaita indicating that the traditional Advaita increasingly distances itself from this movement, as they regard preparational practicing still as inevitable)[412] Alan Jacobs: Many firm devotees of Sri Ramana Maharshi now rightly term this western phenomenon as 'Neo-Advaita'. The term is carefully selected because 'neo' means 'a new or revived form'. And this new form is not the Classical Advaita which we understand to have been taught by both of the Great Self Realised Sages, Adi Shankara and Ramana Maharshi. It can even be termed 'pseudo' because, by presenting the teaching in a highly attenuated form, it might be described as purporting to be Advaita, but not in effect actually being so, in the fullest sense of the word. In this watering down of the essential truths in a palatable style made acceptable and attractive to the contemporary western mind, their teaching is misleading.[413] See for other examples Conway [web 16] and Swartz[414] Presently Cohen has distanced himself from Poonja, and calls his teachings "Evolutionary Enlightenment".[419] What Is Enlightenment, the magazine published by Choen's organisation, has been critical of neo-Advaita several times, as early as 2001. See.[web 17][web 18][web 19] Sanskrit: श्री संस्थान गौडपदाचार्य मठ, Śrī Sansthāna Gauḍapadācārya Maṭha According to Pandey, these Mathas were not established by Shankara himself, but were originally ashrams established by Vibhāņdaka and his son Ŗșyaśŗnga.[425] Shankara inherited the ashrams at Dvārakā and Sringeri, and shifted the ashram at Śŗngaverapura to Badarikāśrama, and the ashram at Angadeśa to Jagannātha Purī.[426] Sanskrit.org: "Advaitins are non-sectarian, and they advocate worship of Siva and Visnu equally with that of the other deities of Hinduism, like Sakti, Ganapati and others."[web 22] Archeological evidence suggest that the Smarta tradition in India dates back to at least 3rd-century CE.[445][446] Practically, Shankara fostered a rapprochement between Advaita and smarta orthodoxy, which by his time had not only continued to defend the varnasramadharma theory as defining the path of karman, but had developed the practice of pancayatanapuja ("five-shrine worship") as a solution to varied and conflicting devotional practices. Thus one could worship any one of five deities (Vishnu, Siva, Durga, Surya, Ganesa) as one's istadevata ("deity of choice").[452] Nicholson: "a Hīnayāna interlocutor accuses the Mahāyāna Buddhist of being a crypto-Vedāntin, paralleling later Vedāntins who accuse the Advaita Vedānta of crypto-Buddhism."[483] The Jonang school was influenced by Yogachara and taught Shentong Buddhism, which sees the highest Truth as self-existent.[485][486] Helmuth von Glasenapp writes: "The Buddhist Nirvana is, therefore, not the primordial ground, the eternal essence, which is at the basis of everything and form which the whole world has arisen (the Brahman of the Upanishads) but the reverse of all that we know, something altogether different which must be characterized as a nothing in relation to the world, but which is experienced as highest bliss by those who have attained to it (Anguttara Nikaya, Navaka-nipata 34). Vedantists and Buddhists have been fully aware of the gulf between their doctrines, a gulf that cannot be bridged over. According to Majjhima Nikaya, Sutta 22, a doctrine that proclaims "The same is the world and the self. This I shall be after death; imperishable, permanent, eternal!" (see Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4, 4, 13), was styled by the Buddha a perfectly foolish doctrine. On the other side, the Katha Upanishad (2, 1, 14) does not see a way to deliverance in the Buddhist theory of dharmas (impersonal processes): He who supposes a profusion of particulars gets lost like rain water on a mountain slope; the truly wise man, however, must realize that his Atman is at one with the Universal Atman, and that the former, if purified from dross, is being absorbed by the latter, "just as clear water poured into clear water becomes one with it, indistinguishably."[495] This development did not end with Advaita Vedanta, but continued in Tantrism and various schools of Shaivism. Non-dual Kashmir Shaivism, for example, was influenced by, and took over doctrines from, several orthodox and heterodox Indian religious and philosophical traditions.[498] These include Vedanta, Samkhya, Patanjali Yoga and Nyayas, and various Buddhist schools, including Yogacara and Madhyamika,[498] but also Tantra and the Nath-tradition.[499] It is often used interchangeably with the term citta-mātra, but they have different meanings. The standard translation of both terms is "consciousness-only" or "mind-only." Several modern researchers object this translation, and the accompanying label of "absolute idealism" or "idealistic monism".[505] A better translation for vijñapti-mātra is representation-only.[506] Kalupahana describes how in Buddhism there is also a current which favours substance ontology. Kalupahanan sees Madhyamaka and Yogacara as reactions against developments toward substance ontology in Buddhism.[533] References Deutsch 1988, p. 4, Quote: "Advaita Vedanta is more than a philosophical system, as we understand these terms in the West today; it is also a practical guide to spiritual experience and is intimately bound up with spiritual experience.". Deutsch 1973, p.3, note 2. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions Sangeetha Menon, Advaita Vedanta, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Timalsina, Sthaneshwar(स्थानेश्वर) (November 2017). "Puruṣavāda: A Pre-Śaṅkara Monistic Philosophy as Critiqued by Mallavādin". Journal of Indian Philosophy. 45 (5): 939–959. doi:10.1007/s10781-017-9329-z. S2CID 171790006. Hacker 1995, p. 78. David N. Lorenzen (ed.)(2015), A dialogue between a Christian and a Hindu about religion, El Colegio de Mexico AC Robert D. Baird (1986), Swami Bhativedanta and the Bhagavd Gita As It Is. In: Robert Neil Minor (ed,), Modern Indian Interpreters of the Bhagavad Gita, SUNY Press Goswami Abhay Charan Bhaktivedanta (1956)Shri Krishna' The Supreme 'Vedantist Sthaneshwar Timalsina (2008). Consciousness in Indian Philosophy: The Advaita Doctrine of 'Awareness Only'. Routledge. pp. 137–138. ISBN 978-1-135-97092-5. Swami Vireshwarananda (1936), Adhyasa or Superimposition Kanamura 2004. Comans 2000, p. 183. Deutsch 1973, pp. 48–52. Mayeda 2006, pp. 78–79. Nakamura 1950a, p. 112. Grimes 1990, pp. 6–7. Olivelle 1992, pp. x–xi, 8–10, 17–18. Stephen Phillips (1998), Classical Indian Metaphysics, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814899, p. 332 note 68 Nakamura 1950, pp. 221, 680. Sharma 2007, p. 4. Fort 1998, pp. 114–120. Jacqueline G. Suthren Hirst (2005). Samkara's Advaita Vedanta: A Way of Teaching. Routledge. pp. 6, 38–39, 60–63, 83–84. ISBN 978-1-134-25441-5. Bina Gupta (1995). Perceiving in Advaita Vedānta: Epistemological Analysis and Interpretation. 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Joseph Milne (1997), "Advaita Vedanta and typologies of multiplicity and unity: An interpretation of nondual knowledge", International Journal of Hindu Studies, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp. 165–188 Doniger, Wendy (2013). On Hinduism. New Delhi. ISBN 978-9382277071. OCLC 853310279. "Advaita Philosophy". School of Economic Science. Retrieved 23 May 2019. "What Kind of Religion is Vedanta?". Psychology Today. Retrieved 23 May 2019. Novetzke 2007, pp. 255–272. Goodall 1996, p. xli. Davis 2014, pp. 13, 167 with note 21. Nakamura 1950, p. 691. Nicholson 2010, p. 68. King 2002, pp. 119–133. Arvind Sharma (2006). A Guide to Hindu Spirituality. World Wisdom. pp. 38–43, 68–75. ISBN 978-1-933316-17-8. Richard King (2013). Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East". Routledge. pp. 128–132. ISBN 978-1-134-63234-3. King 1995, p. 268 with note 2. Ben-Ami Scharfstein (1998), A comparative history of world philosophy: from the Upanishads to Kant, Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 9–11 Patrick Olivelle (1998). Upaniṣads. Oxford University Press. p. xxxvi with footnote 20. ISBN 978-0-19-283576-5. Frits Staal (2008). Discovering the Vedas: Origins, Mantras, Rituals, Insights. Penguin Books. p. 365 note 159. ISBN 978-0-14-309986-4. Sanskrit: Wikisource, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 4.3.32 Stephen Phillips (2009). Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy. Columbia University Press. p. 295 note 24. ISBN 978-0-231-14484-1. Sanskrit: Wisdomlimb, Chandogya upnishad 6.2.1 Mayeda 1992, p. 73. Klostermaier 2007, p. 26. Milne 1997, p. 166. Isaeva 1993, p. 237. Dalal 2009, p. 16, 26-27. Koller 2013, pp. 99-106. Arvind Sharma (1993). The Experiential Dimension of Advaita Vedanta. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 27, 72–83. ISBN 978-81-208-1058-7., quote: "According to Advaita, the pure subject is our true self whose knowledge is liberative, (...) If the subject could be realised in its purity then all misery would cease: this is called self-knowledge" Leesa S. Davis (2010). Advaita Vedanta and Zen Buddhism: Deconstructive Modes of Spiritual Inquiry. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-0-8264-2068-8. Mayeda 1992, p. 19. Mayeda 1992, pp. 18–20. Mayeda 1992, pp. 20–22. Koller 2006. Koller 2013. Koller 2013, p. 101. Koller 2006, p. xi-xii. Koller 2006, p. xii. Mayeda 1992, p. 20. Puligandla 1997, p. 8-9. Puligandla 1997, p. 8. KN Tiwari (1998), Dimensions of Renunciation in Advaita Vedanta, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120808256, pages 1–5 with footnote 3 Karl Potter (2008), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta, Volume 3, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120803107, pages 121–125, 128, 144–145 Lochtefeld 2002, p. 320. Potter 2008, p. 6-7. A Rambachan (2006), The Advaita Worldview: God, World, and Humanity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791468524, pages 47, 99–103 Arvind Sharma(2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820272, pages 9–13, 29–30, 45–47, 79–86 Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 30–31, 260–264. ISBN 978-1-898723-94-3., Quote: (p. 30) – "As a philosophical and metaphysical term it [monism] refers to the acceptance of one single, ultimate, principle as the basis of the cosmos, the unity and oneness of all reality (...) [monism] has a model par excellence in that put forward by the eighth-century Indian philosopher Shankara, who is associated with the school of thought of Advaita Vedanta. (p. 263) – "In Shankara's words: 'the notions oneself and one's own are indeed falsely constructed (upon Atman) through nescience. When there is (the knowledge of) the oneness of Atman, these notions certainly do not exist. If the seed does not exist, whence shall the fruit arise?". Anantanand Rambachan (2006). The Advaita Worldview: God, World, and Humanity. State University of New York Press. pp. 109–111. ISBN 978-0-7914-6851-7. Comans 2000, pp. 183-184. Paul Deussen, The philosophy of the Upanishads, Translated by A.S. Geden (1906), T&T Clark, Edinburgh Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Vol 1 & 2, ISBN 978-81-208-1467-7 [a] K.N. Aiyar (Transl. 1914), Thirty Minor Upanishads, University of Toronto Robart Library Archives, Canada, pp 140–147; [b] S. Nikhilananda (1958), Hinduism : Its meaning for the liberation of the spirit, Harper, ISBN 978-0911206265, pp 53–79; [c] Andrew Fort (1998), Jivanmukti in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita and Neo-Vedanta, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-3904-6 Rambachan 1984. Dalal 2009, p. 22. Mayeda 1992, p. xvii. Sivananda 1977, p. viii. K. Ramakrishna Rao; Anand C. Paranjpe (2015). Psychology in the Indian Tradition. Springer. pp. 6–7, 177–178, 215. ISBN 978-81-322-2440-2. John A. Grimes (1996). A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy. State University of New York Press. pp. 98–99. ISBN 978-0-7914-3067-5. Deutsch 1973, pp. 106-110. Robert P. Waxler; Maureen P. Hall (2011). Transforming Literacy: Changing Lives Through Reading and Writing. Emerald. pp. 105–106. ISBN 978-0-85724-628-8. Dalal 2009, p. 16. P.P. Bilimoria (2012). Śabdapramāṇa: Word and Knowledge. Springer. pp. 299–301. ISBN 978-94-009-2911-1. Hirst 2005, p. 68. Rambachan 1991, p. 1-14. Nikhalananda 1931, p. viii. Nikhalananda 1931, p. viii–ix. Braue 1984, p. 81. Grimes 1996, p. 234. Sivaraman 1973, p. 146. Braue 1984, p. 80. Puligandla 1997, p. 11. Mayeda 2006. Deutsch 1988, pp. 104–105. Comans 2000, pp. 125–142. Maharaj, A (2014). "Śrī Harṣa contra Hegel: Monism, Skeptical Method, and the Limits of Reason". Philosophy East and West. Johns Hopkins University Press. 64 (1): 88, context: pp. 82–108. doi:10.1353/pew.2014.0010. S2CID 170532752. Puligandla 1997, p. 251-254. Leesa S. Davis (2010). Advaita Vedanta and Zen Buddhism: Deconstructive Modes of Spiritual Inquiry. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-0-8264-2068-8. Eliot Deutsch (1980), Advaita Vedanta : A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824802714, pages 105-108 George Thibaut, The Sacred Books of the East: The Vedanta-Sutras, Part 1, p. 12, at Google Books, Oxford University Press, Editor: Max Muller, page 12 with footnote 1 Heim, M. (2005), Differentiations in Hindu ethics, in William Schweiker (Editor), The Blackwell companion to religious ethics, ISBN 0-631-21634-0, Chapter 35, pp 341–354 James Lochtefeld, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Rosen Publishing New York, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, page 777 Rao, G. H. (1926), The Basis of Hindu Ethics, International Journal of Ethics, 37(1), pp 19–35 Deutsch 1973, pp. 106–110. Comans 2000, p. 182. Comans 2000, pp. 182–183. Joel Mlecko (1982), The Guru in Hindu Tradition Numen, Volume 29, Fasc. 1, pages 33–61 James Lochtefeld, Brahman, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 978-0823931798, page 122 PT Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge, ISBN 978-1406732627, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII Jeffrey Brodd (2009), World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery, Saint Mary's Press, ISBN 978-0884899976, pages 43–47 Puligandla 1997, p. 231. Brodd, Jeffrey (2003). World Religions. Winona, MN: Saint Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-725-5. Sakkapohl Vachatimanont (2005), On why the traditional Advaic resolution of jivanmukti is superior to the neo-Vedantic resolution, Macalester Journal of Philosophy, Volume 14, Issue 1, pages 47-48 John Bowker (ed.)(2012), The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press.[1] Puligandla 1997, p. 222. Merv Fowler (2005), Zen Buddhism: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, p. 30: "Upanisadic thought is anything but consistent; nevertheless, there is a common focus on the acceptance of a totally transcendent Absolute, a trend which arose in the Vedic period. This indescribable Absolute is called Brahman [...] Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, page 243, 325–344, 363, 581 Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, page 358, 371 Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, page 305, 476 Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 110, 315–316, 495, 838–851 Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 211, 741–742 Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 181, 237, 444, 506–544, 570–571, 707, 847–850 Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 52, 110, 425, 454, 585–586, 838–851 Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 173–174, 188–198, 308–317, 322–324, 367, 447, 496, 629–637, 658, 707–708 Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 600, 619–620, 647, 777 Venkatramaiah 2000, p. xxxii. 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Anantanand Rambachan (1994), The limits of scripture: Vivekananda's reinterpretation of the Vedas. University of Hawaii Press, pages 125, 124 [a] Atman, Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford University Press (2012), Quote: "1. real self of the individual; 2. a person's soul"; [b] John Bowker (2000), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0192800947, See entry for Atman; [c] WJ Johnson (2009), A Dictionary of Hinduism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0198610250, See entry for Atman (self). R Dalal (2011), The Religions of India: A Concise Guide to Nine Major Faiths, Penguin, ISBN 978-0143415176, page 38 [a] David Lorenzen (2004), The Hindu World (Editors: Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby), Routledge, ISBN 0-415215277, pages 208–209, Quote: "Advaita and nirguni movements, on the other hand, stress an interior mysticism in which the devotee seeks to discover the identity of individual soul (atman) with the universal ground of being (brahman) or to find god within himself".; [b] Richard King (1995), Early Advaita Vedanta and Buddhism, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791425138, page 64, Quote: "Atman as the innermost essence or soul of man, and Brahman as the innermost essence and support of the universe. (...) Thus we can see in the Upanishads, a tendency towards a convergence of microcosm and macrocosm, culminating in the equating of atman with Brahman". [c] Chad Meister (2010), The Oxford Handbook of Religious Diversity, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195340136, page 63; Quote: "Even though Buddhism explicitly rejected the Hindu ideas of Atman (soul) and Brahman, Hinduism treats Sakyamuni Buddha as one of the ten avatars of Vishnu." Ram-Prasad 2013, p. 237. Ram-Prasad 2013, p. 235. Deussen, Paul and Geden, A. S. (2010), The Philosophy of the Upanishads, Cosimo Classics, pp. 86–87. ISBN 1-61640-240-7. Deussen, Paul and Geden, A. S. (2010), The Philosophy of the Upanishads, Cosimo Classics, p. 151, ISBN 1-61640-240-7. Richard Payne (2005). K. Bulkeley (ed.). Soul, Psyche, Brain. Palgrave Macmillan/Springer. pp. 199–200 with p. 215 notes 5, 6. ISBN 978-1-4039-7923-0., Quote: "A fourth metaphor is the monistic equation of the true or absolute self (atman) with absolute being (Brahman). In general, then, the conception of the self that emerges is one in which the self is in some way permanent, eternal, absolute or unchanging. It is also simultaneously universal and individual. The view is that there is an essence and that it can be known." Sthaneshwar Timalsina (2014), Consciousness in Indian Philosophy: The Advaita Doctrine of 'Awareness Only', Routledge, ISBN 978-0415762236, pages 3–23 Deutsch 1973, pp. 48–51. Deutsch 1973, pp. 10–14, 18–19, 47–48. Arvind Sharma(2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820272, pages 30–32 Arvind Sharma(2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820272, pages 44–45, 90 Deutsch 1973, pp. 50–51, 101–107. Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 256–258, 261–263. ISBN 978-1-898723-94-3. P. T. Raju (1985). Structural Depths of Indian Thought. State University of New York Press. pp. 448–449. ISBN 978-0-88706-139-4. A Rambachan (2006), The Advaita Worldview: God, World, and Humanity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791468524, pages 114–122 Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 247–248, 252–254. ISBN 978-1-898723-94-3. Adi Sankara, A Bouquet of Nondual Texts: Advaita Prakarana Manjari, Translators: Ramamoorthy & Nome, ISBN 978-0970366726, pages 173-214 Mayeda 1992, p. 12. Deutsch 1973, p. 49. Potter 2008a, p. 510-512. Mayeda 1992, p. 14. Arvind Sharma (2008). The Philosophy of Religion and Advaita Vedanta: A Comparative Study in Religion and Reason. Pennsylvania State University Press. pp. 5–14. ISBN 978-0-271-03946-6. Sharma 1995, pp. 174–178. Hugh Nicholson 2011, pp. 171–172, 191. Allen Wright Thrasher (1993). The Advaita Vedānta of Brahma-siddhi. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 1–7. ISBN 978-81-208-0982-6. Puligandla 1997, p. 232. Sharma 1995, pp. 174-178. Fowler 2002, pp. 246-247. Sharma 1995, pp. 176–178. Renard 2010, p. 131. Bradley J. Malkovsky (2001). The Role of Divine Grace in the Soteriology of Śaṃkarācārya. BRILL Academic. pp. 42–44. ISBN 90-04-12044-0. M. Hiriyanna (1993). Outlines of Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 359–363. ISBN 978-81-208-1086-0. Arvind Sharma (1997). The Rope and the Snake: A Metaphorical Exploration of Advaita Vedānta. Manohar Publishers. pp. 1–16. ISBN 978-81-7304-179-2. John Grimes (2004). The Vivekacūḍāmaṇi of Śaṅkarācārya Bhagavatpāda: An Introduction and Translation. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 31–33. ISBN 978-81-208-2039-5. T.R.V. Murti (1996). Studies in Indian Thought: Collected Papers of Prof. T. R. V. Murti. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 294–296, 194–195. ISBN 978-81-208-1310-6. John Grimes (1994). Problems and Perspectives in Religious Discourse: Advaita Vedanta Implications. State University of New York Press. pp. 35–38. ISBN 978-0-7914-1791-1. Jadunath Sinha (2013). Indian Psychology Perception. Routledge. pp. 306–314. ISBN 978-1-136-34605-7. Chakravarthi Ram-Prasad (2013). Advaita Epistemology and Metaphysics: An Outline of Indian Non-Realism. Taylor & Francis. pp. 190–194. ISBN 978-1-136-86897-9. Sthaneshwar Timalsina (2008). Consciousness in Indian Philosophy: The Advaita Doctrine of 'Awareness Only'. Routledge. p. xvii. ISBN 978-1-135-97092-5., Quote: "Advaita can be approached from various angles. Not only are there multiple interpretations of Advaita, there are different starting points from which one can arrive at the conclusion of non-duality". S. Radhakrishnan, The Vedanta Philosophy and the Doctrine of Maya, International Journal of Ethics, Vol. 24, No. 4 (Jul. 1914), pages 431–451 PD Shastri, The Doctrine of Maya Luzac & Co, London, page 3 HM Vroom (1989), Religions and the Truth: Philosophical Reflections and Perspectives, Eerdmans Publishing, ISBN 978-0802805027, pages 122–123 Frederic F Fost (1998), Playful Illusion: The Making of Worlds in Advaita Vedānta, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 48, No. 3, pages 388, 397 and note 11 PD Shastri, The Doctrine of Maya Luzac & Co, London, page 58-73 Frederic F. Fost (1998), Playful Illusion: The Making of Worlds in Advaita Vedānta, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 48, No. 3 (Jul. 1998), pages 387–405 Surendranath Dasgupta, A History of Indian Philosophy. Cambridge University Press Archive, 1955, page 1-2 Pratima Bowes, "Mysticism in the Upanishads and Shankara's Vedanta" in Karel Werner, ed., The Yogi and the Mystic." Routledge, 1995, page 67. Esther Abraham Solomon (1969), Avidyā: A Problem of Truth and Reality, OCLC 658823, pages 269–270 Sharma 2007, pp. 19–40, 53–58, 79–86. Kaplan, Stephen (April 2007). "Vidyā and Avidyā: Simultaneous and Coterminous?: A Holographic Model to Illuminate the Advaita Debate". Philosophy East and West. 2. 57 (2): 178–203. doi:10.1353/pew.2007.0019. JSTOR 4488090. S2CID 144344856. Mayeda 1992, p. 82. A. Rambachan (2006), The Advaita Worldview: God, World, and Humanity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791468524, pages 114–122 Nicholson 2010, p. 27. Mayeda 2006, pp. 25–27. Hugh Nicholson 2011, p. 266 note 20, 167–170. Hugh Nicholson 2011, p. 266 note 21. Deutsch 1973, pp. 40–43. Arvind Sharma (2004), Sleep as a State of Consciousness in Advaita Vedånta, State University of New York Press, page 3 William Indich (2000), Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812512, pages 57–60 Wilber 2000, p. 132. Arvind Sharma (2004), Sleep as a State of Consciousness in Advaita Vedånta, State University of New York Press, pages 15–40, 49–72 King 1995, p. 300 note 140. Sarma 1996, pp. 122, 137. Sarma 1996, pp. 126, 146. Comans 2000, pp. 128–131, 5–8, 30–37. Indich 2000, pp. 106–108; Bruce M. Sullivan (1997). Historical Dictionary of Hinduism. Scarecrow. pp. 59–60. ISBN 978-0-8108-3327-2.; Bina Gupta (1998). The Disinterested Witness: A Fragment of Advaita Vedānta Phenomenology. Northwestern University Press. pp. 26–30. ISBN 978-0-8101-1565-1. PT Raju (1985), Structural Depths of Indian Thought, State University New York Press, ISBN 978-0887061394, pages 32–33 Robert Hume, Chandogya Upanishad – Eighth Prathapaka, Seventh through Twelfth Khanda, Oxford University Press, pages 268–273 Patrick Olivelle (1998). Upaniṣads. Oxford University Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-19-283576-5.; Sanskrit (Wikisource): प्राणोऽपानो व्यान इत्यष्टावक्षराणि अष्टाक्षर ह वा एकं गायत्र्यै पदम् एतदु हैवास्या एतत् स यावदिदं प्राणि तावद्ध जयति योऽस्या एतदेवं पदं वेद अथास्या एतदेव तुरीयं दर्शतं पदं परोरजा य एष तपति यद्वै चतुर्थं तत्तुरीयम् दर्शतं पदमिति ददृश इव ह्येष परोरजा इति सर्वमु ह्येवैष रज उपर्युपरि तपत्य् एव हैव श्रिया यशसा तपति योऽस्या एतदेवं पदं वेद ॥ ३ ॥ Indich 2000, pp. 58–67, 106–108. Karl Potter (2002), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0779-0, pages 25–26 DPS Bhawuk (2011), Spirituality and Indian Psychology (Editor: Anthony Marsella), Springer, ISBN 978-1-4419-8109-7, page 172 Puligandla 1997, p. 228. Grimes 1996, p. 238. Datta 1932, pp. 221–253. Gavin Flood, An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521438780, page 225 * Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy of Religion : Indian Philosophy Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112, pages 245–248; John A. Grimes, A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791430675, page 238 B Matilal (1992), Perception: An Essay in Indian Theories of Knowledge, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0198239765 Karl Potter (1977), Meaning and Truth, in Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 2, Princeton University Press, Reprinted in 1995 by Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0309-4, pages 160–168 Karl Potter (1977), Meaning and Truth, in Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 2, Princeton University Press, Reprinted in 1995 by Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0309-4, pages 168–169 W Halbfass (1991), Tradition and Reflection, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-7914-0362-9, page 26-27 James Lochtefeld, "Anumana" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A-M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, page 46-47 Karl Potter (2002), Presuppositions of India's Philosophies, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0779-0 Monier Williams (1893), Indian Wisdom – Religious, Philosophical and Ethical Doctrines of the Hindus, Luzac & Co, London, page 61 VN Jha (1986), "The upamana-pramana in Purvamimamsa", SILLE, pages 77–91 James Lochtefeld, "Upamana" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N-Z, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, page 721 Monier Williams (1893), Indian Wisdom – Religious, Philosophical and Ethical Doctrines of the Hindus, Luzac & Co, London, pages 457–458 Arthapatti Encyclopædia Britannica (2012) James Lochtefeld, "Arthapatti" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A-M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, page 55 James Lochtefeld, "Abhava" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A-M, Rosen Publishing. ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, page 1 D Sharma (1966), Epistemological negative dialectics of Indian logic – Abhāva versus Anupalabdhi, Indo-Iranian Journal, 9(4): 291–300 Karl Potter (1977), Meaning and Truth, in Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 2, Princeton University Press, Reprinted in 1995 by Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0309-4, pages 155–174, 227–255 Chris Bartley (2013), Padartha, in Encyclopaedia of Asian Philosophy (Editor: Oliver Leaman), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415862530, pages 415–416 Mohan Lal (Editor), The Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature, Vol. 5, Sahitya Akademy, ISBN 81-260-1221-8, page 3958 M. Hiriyanna (2000), The Essentials of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120813304, page 43 P. Billimoria (1988), Śabdapramāṇa: Word and Knowledge, Studies of Classical India Volume 10, Springer, ISBN 978-94-010-7810-8, pages 1–30 Deutsch 1973, p. 99. Bauer, Nancy F. (1987). "Advaita Vedanta and Contemporary Western Ethics". Philosophy East and West. University of Hawaii Press. 37 (1): 36–50. doi:10.2307/1399082. JSTOR 1399082. Deutsch 1973, p. 100. Deutsch 1973, p. 101-102 with footnotes. Anantanand Rambachan (2006). The Advaita Worldview: God, World, and Humanity. State University of New York Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-7914-6851-7. Mayeda 2006, p. 88–89. Mayeda 2006, p. 92. Sanskrit:Upadesha sahasri English Translation: S Jagadananda (Translator, 1949), Upadeshasahasri, Vedanta Press, ISBN 978-8171200597, page 16-17; OCLC 218363449 Sanskrit:Upadesha sahasri English Translation: S Jagadananda (Translator, 1949), Upadeshasahasri, Vedanta Press, ISBN 978-8171200597, page 17-19; OCLC 218363449 Sankara 2006, p. 226-227. English Translation: S Jagadananda (Translator, 1949), Upadeshasahasri, Vedanta Press, ISBN 978-8171200597, page 32; OCLC 218363449; Sanskrit: तच् चैतत् परमार्थदर्शनं प्रतिपत्तुमिच्छता वर्णाश्रमाद्यभिमान-कृतपाञ्क्तरूपपुत्रवित्तलोकैषणादिभ्यो व्युत्थानं कर्तव्यम् । सम्यक्प्रत्ययविरोधात् तदभिमानस्य भेददर्शनप्रतिषेधार्थोपपत्तिश्चोपपद्यते । न ह्येकस्मिन्नात्मन्यसंसारित्वबुद्धौ शास्त्रन्यायोत्पादितायां तद्विपरीता बुद्धिर्भवति । न ह्य् अग्नौ शितत्वबुद्धिः, शरीरे वाजरामरणबुद्धिः । तस्मादविद्याकार्यत्वात् सर्वकर्मणां तत्साधनानां च यज्ञोपवीतादीनां परमार्थदर्शनिष्टेन त्यागः कर्तव्यः ॥ ४४॥ Upadesha sahasri Koller 2013, p. 100-101. Isaeva 1993, p. 35. Dasgupta 1955, pp. 28. Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1988), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-1867-6, pages 2–3 Coburn, Thomas B. 1984. pp. 439 Klaus Klostermaier (2007), Hinduism: A Beginner's Guide, ISBN 978-1851685387, Chapter 2, page 26 Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy of Religion : Indian Philosophy Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112, pages 245–248 Deutsch 1988, pp. 4–6 with footnote 4. Sharma 2007, pp. 18–19. Stephen Phillips (1998), Classical Indian Metaphysics, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814899, page 332 note 68 Stephen Phillips (1998), Classical Indian Metaphysics, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814899, page 332 note 69 Isaeva 1993, p. 35-36. Rambachan 1991, pp. xii–xiii. Isaeva 1993, pp. 35–36, 77, 210–212. Koller 2013, p. 100. Coburn, Thomas B. 1984. pp. 439 Klaus Klostermaier (2007), Hinduism: A Beginner's Guide, ISBN 978-1851685387, Chapter 2, page 26 Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy of Religion : Indian Philosophy Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112, pages 245–248 Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1988), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-1867-6, pages 2–3 Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820272, pages 17–19, 22–34 Mayeda 2006, pp. 6–7. A Rambachan (1991), Accomplishing the Accomplished: Vedas as a Source of Valid Knowledge in Sankara, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-1358-1, pages xii–xiii Grimes 1990, p. 7. Nakamura 1950, p. 3. Nakamura 1950, p. 426. Olivelle 1992, pp. 8-9. Olivelle 1992, p. 9. Sprockhoff, Joachim F (1976). Samnyasa: Quellenstudien zur Askese im Hinduismus (in German). Wiesbaden: Kommissionsverlag Franz Steiner. pp. 277–294, 319–377. ISBN 978-3515019057. Olivelle 1992, p. 10. Olivelle 1992, p. 3-4. Olivelle 1992, pp. 17–18. Stephen H Phillips (1995), Classical Indian Metaphysics, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0812692983, page 332 with note 68 Antonio Rigopoulos (1998), Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791436967, pages 62–63 Deutsch & Dalvi 2004, p. 95-96. Balasubramanian 2000, p. xxx. Balasubramanian 2000, p. xxix. Balasubramanian 2000, p. xxx–xxxi. Deutsch & Dalvi 2004, p. 95. Balasubramanian 2000, p. xxxii. Nakamura 1950a, p. 436. Pandey 2000, p. 4. Balasubramanian 2000, p. xxxiii. Roodurmum 2002. Nakamura 1950, p. 678. Nakamura 1950, p. 679. Raju 1992, p. 177. Comans 2000, pp. 27–33. Comans 2000, pp. 94. Deutsch & Dalvi 2004, p. 157. Nakamura 1950, p. 308. Nakamura 1950, p. 280. Sharma 1997, p. 239. Nakamura 1950, pp. 211–213. Nakamura 1950, pp. 280–281. TRV Murti (1955), The central philosophy of Buddhism, Routledge (2008 Reprint), ISBN 978-0-415-46118-4, pages 114–115 Gaudapada, Devanathan Jagannathan, University of Toronto, IEP Shri Gowdapadacharya & Shri Kavale Math (A Commemoration volume). p. 10. Sanskrit:Sanskrit documents, Brahmajnanalimala 1.20 Mayeda 2006, p. 13. John Koller (2007), in Chad Meister and Paul Copan (Editors): The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-134-18001-1, pages 98–106 Tree, Speaking (4 April 2017). "ADI SHANKARA PERCEPTS AND PRACTICE OF ADVITA PART I". Speaking Tree. Retrieved 4 March 2021. Mayeda 2006, pp. 46–47. Karl H Potter (2014), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 3, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-61486-1, page 249 George Thibaut (Translator), Brahma Sutras: With Commentary of Shankara, Reprinted as ISBN 978-1-60506-634-9, pages 31–33 verse 1.1.4 Mayeda 2006, pp. 46–53. Mayeda & Tanizawa (1991), Studies on Indian Philosophy in Japan, 1963–1987, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 41, No. 4, pages 529–535 Michael Comans (1996), Śankara and the Prasankhyanavada, Journal of Indian Philosophy, Vol. 24, No. 1, pages 49–71 Stephen Phillips (2000) in Roy W. Perrett (Editor), Epistemology: Indian Philosophy, Volume 1, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-8153-3609-9, pages 224–228 with notes 8, 13 and 63 Franklin Merrell-Wolff (1995), Transformations in Consciousness: The Metaphysics and Epistemology, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2675-3, pages 242–260 Will Durant (1976), Our Oriental Heritage: The Story of Civilization, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-0-671-54800-1, Chapter XIX, Section VI Michaels 2004, p. 41–43. 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Infobase Publishing. Jones, Richard H. (2004). "Shankara's Advaita". Mysticism and Morality: A New Look at Old Questions. Lanham: Lexington Books. pp. 95–114. Kalupahana, David J. (1994), A history of Buddhist philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited King, Richard (1995), Early Advaita Vedānta and Buddhism: The Mahāyāna Context of the Gauḍapādīya-kārikā, SUNY Press King, Richard (1999). "Orientalism and the Modern Myth of "Hinduism"". NUMEN. BRILL. 46 (2): 146–185. doi:10.1163/1568527991517950. S2CID 45954597. King, Richard (2002), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Routledge Klostermaier, Klaus K. (1984), Mythologies and Philosophies of Salvation in the Theistic Traditions of India, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, ISBN 978-0-88920-158-3 Klostermaier, Klaus k. (2007), Hinduism: A Beginner's Guide, Oneworld Publications, ISBN 978-1851685387 Kochumuttom, Thomas A. (1999), A buddhist Doctrine of Experience. A New Translation and Interpretation of the Works of Vasubandhu the Yogacarin, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Koller, John M. (2006), "Foreword", A thousand teachings: the Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara, Motilall Banarsidass Koller, John M. (2013), "Shankara", in Meister, Chad; Copan, Paul (eds.), Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion, Routledge Kumar Das, Sisir (2006). A history of Indian literature, 500–1399. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-2171-0. Lochtefeld, James G. (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Volume One: A-M, The Rosen Publishing Group Lochtefeld, James (2002a), "Brahman", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0823931798 Lorenzen, David N. (2006). Who Invented Hinduism: Essays on Religion in History. Yoda Press. ISBN 9788190227261. Lucas, Phillip Charles (2011), "When a Movement Is Not a Movement", Nova Religio, 15 (2): 93–114, doi:10.1525/nr.2011.15.2.93, JSTOR 10.1525/nr.2011.15.2.93 Mackenzie, Matthew (2012), "Luminosity, Subjectivity, and Temporality: An Examination of Buddhist and Advaita views of Consciousness", in Kuznetsova, Irina; Ganeri, Jonardon; Ram-Prasad, Chakravarthi (eds.), Hindu and Buddhist Ideas in Dialogue: Self and No-Self, Routledge Madaio, James (24 May 2017). "Rethinking Neo-Vedānta: Swami Vivekananda and the Selective Historiography of Advaita Vedānta1". Religions. 8 (6): 101. doi:10.3390/rel8060101. Mahony, William (1997). The Artful Universe: An Introduction to the Vedic Religious Imagination. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0791435809. Marek, David (2008), Dualität – Nondualität. Konzeptuelles und nichtkonzeptuelles Erkennen in Psychologie und buddhistischer Praxis (PDF) Mayeda, Sengaku (1992), "An Introduction to the Life and Thought of Sankara", in Mayeda, Sengaku (ed.), A Thousand Teachings: The Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara, State University of New York City Press, ISBN 0-7914-0944-9 Mayeda, Sengaku (2006), "An Introduction to the Life and Thought of Sankara", in Mayeda, Sengaku (ed.), A Thousand Teachings: The Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120827714 Sankara (2006), "A Thousand teachings", in Mayeda, Sengaku (ed.), A Thousand Teachings: The Upadesasahasri of Sankara, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-2771-4 McDaniel, June (2004), Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-534713-5 Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press Milne, Joseph (April 1997), "Advaita Vedanta and typologies of multiplicity and unity: An interpretation of nindual knowledge", International Journal of Hindu Studies, 1 (1): 165–188, doi:10.1007/s11407-997-0017-6, S2CID 143690641 Morris, Brian (2006), Religion and Anthropology: A Critical Introduction, Cambridge University Press Muller-Ortega, Paul E. (2010), Triadic Heart of Siva: Kaula Tantricism of Abhinavagupta in the Non-Dual Shaivism of Kashmir, SUNY press Murti, TRV (1955). The central philosophy of Buddhism. Routledge (2008 Reprint). ISBN 978-0-415-46118-4. Nakamura, Hajime (1950a), A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy. Part One (1990 Reprint), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited Nakamura, Hajime (1950), A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy. Part Two (2004 Reprint), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited Neog, Maheswar (1980), Early History of the Vaiṣṇava Faith and Movement in Assam: Śaṅkaradeva and His Times, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0007-6 Nicholson, Andrew J. (2010), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press Hugh Nicholson (2011). Comparative Theology and the Problem of Religious Rivalry. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-977286-5. Nikhalananda, Swami (1931), Drg-Drsya-Viveka. An inquiry inti the nature of the 'seer' and the 'seen.', Sri Ramakrishna Asrama Novetzke, Christian (2007), Bhakti and Its Public, International Journal of Hindu Studies, 11 Olivelle, Patrick (1992), The Samnyasa Upanisads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195070453 Pande, Govind Chandra (1994), Life and Thought of Śaṅkarācārya, Motilal Banarsidass Publ, ISBN 978-81-208-1104-1 Pandey, S.L. (2000), Pre-Sankara Advaita. In: Chattopadhyana (gen.ed.), "History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization. Volume II Part 2: Advaita Vedanta", Delhi: Centre for Studies in Civilizations Plott, John (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Patristic-Sutra period (325 – 800 AD), Volume 3, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120805507 Potter, Karl H. (2008), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta Up to Śaṃkara and His Pupils, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited Potter, Karl (2008a), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta, Volume 3, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120803107 Potter, Karl. H. (1981), Gaudapada, Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta up to Śaṃkara and his pupils, Volume 3, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0310-8 Puligandla, Ramakrishna (1997), Fundamentals of Indian Philosophy, New Delhi: D.K. Printworld (P) Ltd. Raju, P.T. (1971), The Philosophical Traditions of India, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass (1992 Reprint) Raju, P.T. (1992), The Philosophical Traditions of India, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited Ram-Prasad, Chakravarthi (2013), "Situating the Elusive Self of Advaita Vedanta" (PDF), in Siderits, Mark; Thompson, Evan; Zahavi, Dan (eds.), Self, No Self?: Perspectives from Analytical, Phenomenological, and Indian Traditions, Oxford University Press Rambachan, Anantanand (1984), The attainment of moksha according to Shankara and Vivekananda with special reference to the significance of scripture (sruti) and experience (anubhabva) (PDF), University of Leeds Rambachan, Anantanand (1991), Accomplishing the Accomplished: Vedas as a Source of Valid Knowledge in Sankara, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-1358-1 Rambachan, Anatanand (1994), The Limits of Scripture: Vivekananda's Reinterpretation of the Vedas, University of Hawaii Press Renard, Philip (2010), Non-Dualisme. De directe bevrijdingsweg, Cothen: Uitgeverij Juwelenschip Rigopoulos, Antonio (1998). Dattatreya: The Immortal Guru, Yogin, and Avatara: A Study of the Transformative and Inclusive Character of a Multi-faceted Hindu Deity. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-3696-7. Rosen, Steven (2006), Essential Hinduism, Greenwood Publishing Group, ISBN 9780275990060 Roodurmum, Pulasth Soobah (2002), Bhāmatī and Vivaraṇa Schools of Advaita Vedānta: A Critical Approach, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited Sarma, Candradhara (1996). The Advaita Tradition in Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1312-0. Sharma, Arvind (1995), The Philosophy of Religion and Advaita Vedanta, Penn State University Press, ISBN 978-0271028323 Sharma, Arvind (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820272 Sharma, Chandradhar (1996). The Advaita Tradition in Indian Philosophy. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. Sharma, Chandradhar (1997), A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0365-5 Sheridan, Daniel (1986). The Advaitic Theism of the Bhāgavata Purāṇa. Columbia: South Asia Books. ISBN 81-208-0179-2. Sheridan, Daniel (1991). Texts in Context: Traditional Hermeneutics in South Asia (Editor: Jeffrey Timm). State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0791407967. Sivananda (1977), Brahma Sutras, Motilal Banarsidass Sivaraman, K. (1973), Śaivism in Philosophical Perspective: A Study of the Formative Concepts, Problems, and Methods of Śaiva Siddhānta, Motilall Banarsidass Smith, David (2003), The Dance of Siva: Religion, Art and Poetry in South India, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-52865-8 Venkatramaiah, Munagala (2000), Talks With Sri Ramana Maharshi: On Realizing Abiding Peace and Happiness, Inner Directions, ISBN 1-878019-00-7 Werner, Karel (1994), The Yogi and the Mystic, Routledge Whaling, Frank (1979). "Shankara and Buddhism". Journal of Indian Philosophy. 7 (1): 1–42. doi:10.1007/BF02561251. S2CID 170613052. Wilber, Ken (2000), Integral Psychology, Shambhala Publications Yogani (2011), Advanced Yoga Practices Support Forum Posts of Yogani, 2005–2010, AYP Publishing Web-sources Sangeetha Menon (2012), Advaita Vedanta, IEP Jiddu Krishnamurti, Saanen 2nd Conversation with Swami Venkatesananda 26 July 1969 Oxford Index, nididhyāsana Sanskrit Dictionary, Atman Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Bhedābheda Vedānta Ramana Maharshi. States of Consciousness. Sri Chinmoy. Summits of God-Life. advaita-deanta.org, Advaita Vedanta before Sankaracarya Asram Vidya Order, Biographical Notes About Sankara And Gaudapada "Shri Kavale Math". Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2013. THE BHAMATI AND VIVARANA SCHOOLS Sangeetha Menon (2007), Advaita Vedānta, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy s:The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda/Volume 2/Jnana-Yoga/The Absolute and Manifestation Michael Hawley, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888—1975), Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Advaita Vision, teachers Timothy Conway, Neo-Advaita or Pseudo-Advaita and Real Advaita-Nonduality What is Enlightenment? 1 September 2006 What is Enlightenment? 31 December 2001 Archived 10 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine What is Enlightenment? 1 December 2005 "Undivided Journal, About the Journal". Archived from the original on 23 August 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2013. Jerry Katz on Nonduality, "What is Nonduality?" Sankara Acarya Biography – Monastic Tradition Archived 8 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine Asram Vidya Order, Biographical Notes About Sankara And Gaudapada Kavale Math Official Website "Adi Shankara's four Amnaya Peethams". Archived from the original on 26 June 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2006. Gaura Gopala Dasa, The Self-Defeating Philosophy of Mayavada Mayavada Philosophy Further reading Primary texts Robert Hume, Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press Shankara, "A thousand teachings: the Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara", Translator Sengaku Mayeda Shankara, Brahma Sutras with Shankara's commentary, translator George Thibaut Maṇḍana Miśra, translated by Allen W. Thrasher (1993), The Advaita Vedānta of Brahmasiddhi, Delhi: Motilal Barnasidass Eliot Deutsch and J. A. B. van Buitenen (1971), A Source Book of Advaita Vedānta, Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, ISBN 978-0870221897 Introductions Deutsch, Eliot (1969). Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction. Honolulu: East-West Center Press. Mayeda, Sengaku (1992), "An Introduction to the Life and Thought of Sankara", in Mayeda, Sengaku (ed.), A Thousand Teachings: The Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara, State University of New York City Press, ISBN 0-7914-0944-9 Comans, Michael (2000), The Method of Early Advaita Vedānta: A Study of Gauḍapāda, Śaṅkara, Sureśvara, and Padmapāda, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Rambachan, A. (2006). The Advaita Worldview: God, World, and Humanity. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0791468524. Sarma, Chandradhar (2007), The Advaita Tradition in Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120813120 History T. M. P. Mahadevan, Preceptors of Advaita, 1968 Potter, Karl H. (1981), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, vol. 3: Advaita Vedanta up to Sankara and his Pupils, Princeton: Princeton University Press Potter, Karl H. (2006), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies vol. 11: Advaita Vedānta from 800 to 1200, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Isaeva, N.V. (1995), From Early Vedanta to Kashmir Shaivism: Gaudapada, Bhartrhari, and Abhinavagupta, SUNY Press Topical studies Arvind Sharma (1995), The Philosophy of Religion and Advaita Vedānta: A Comparative Study in Religion and Reason, Pennsylvania State University Press Satyapal Verma (1992), Role of Reason in Sankara Vedānta, Parimal Publication, Delhi Sangam Lal Pandey (1989), The Advaita view of God, Darshana Peeth, Allahabad Kapil N. Tiwari (1977), Dimensions of renunciation in Advaita Vedānta, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi Jacqueline G Suthren Hirst (2005), Samkara's Advaita Vedānta: A Way of Teaching, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415406017 Leesa Davis (2010), Advaita Vedānta and Zen Buddhism: Deconstructive Modes of Spiritual Inquiry, Bloomsbury Academic Gaudapada King, Richard (1995), Early Advaita Vedānta and Buddhism: the Mahāyāna context of the Gauḍapādīya-kārikā, State University of New York Press, ISBN 9780791425138 Shankara Natalia V. Isayeva (1993), Shankara and Indian philosophy, SUNY, New York Elayath. K. N. Neelakantan (1990), The Ethics of Sankara, University of Calicut Raghunath D. Karmarkar (1966), Sankara's Advaita, Karnatak University, Dharwar Paul Deussen (Translated by Charles Johnston), The System of the Vedanta with Shankara commentaries at Google Books, Open Court Charles Johnston, The Vedanta Philosophy of Sankaracharya at Google Books, Theosophical Society Neo-Vedānta King, Richard (2002), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Routledge Rambachan, Anantanand (1994). The limits of scripture: Vivekananda's reinterpretation of the Vedas. [Honolulu]: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1542-4. Neo-Advaita Jacobs, Alan (2004), "Advaita and Western Neo-Advaita.", The Mountain Path Journal, Ramanasramam: 81–88, archived from the original on 18 May 2015 Lucas, Phillip Charles (2011), "When a Movement Is Not a Movement. Ramana Maharshi and Neo-Advaita in North America", Nova Religio, 15 (2): 93–114, doi:10.1525/nr.2011.15.2.93, JSTOR 10.1525/nr.2011.15.2.93 Sharf, Robert H. (2000), "The Rhetoric of Experience and the Study of Religion" (PDF), Journal of Consciousness Studies, 7 (11–12): 267–87, archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2013, retrieved 17 January 2017 Indian languages Mishra, M., Bhāratīya Darshan (भारतीय दर्शन), Kalā Prakāshan. Sinha, H. P., Bharatiya Darshan ki ruparekha (Features of Indian Philosophy), 1993, Motilal Benarasidas, Delhi–Varanasi. Swāmi Paramānanda Bhārati, Vedānta Prabodha (in Kannada), Jnānasamvardhini Granthakusuma, 2004 External links Bibliography of Advaita Vedānta Ancient to 9th-century literature Bibliography of Advaita Vedānta 9th-century to 20th-century literature Advaita Vedanta at Curlie Vedānta Hub – Resources to help with the Study and Practice of Advaita Vedānta vte Hinduism topics vte Indian philosophy Categories: Advaita VedantaAdvaitaMovements in ancient Indian philosophyHindu philosophical conceptsMonismHindu mysticismNondualismTranstheismVedanta Navigation menu Not logged in Talk Contributions Create account Log in ArticleTalk ReadEditView historySearch Search Wikipedia Main page Contents Current events Random article About Wikipedia Contact us Donate Contribute Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file Tools What links here Related changes Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Wikidata item Print/export Download as PDF Printable version Languages العربية Català Español Français हिन्दी Italiano संस्कृतम् اردو 中文 34 more Edit links This page was last edited on 4 March 2021, at 23:08 (UTC). Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. «È meglio adempiere il proprio dharma anche se senza merito (e in maniera imperfetta), che fare bene il dharma di un altro. Chi compie il dovere prescritto dalla propria natura innata non commette peccato.» (Bhagavadgītā, XVIII: 47[1]) Bhagavadgītā Krishna and Arjun on the chariot, Mahabharata, 18th-19th century, India.jpg Kṛṣṇa ed Arjuna a Kurukṣetra, pittura del XVIII-XIX secolo Autore	per la tradizione: Vyāsa (il "Compilatore", appellativo di Kṛṣṇa Dvaipāyana) Periodo	III secolo a.C.- I secolo d.C. Genere	testo sacro Lingua originale	sanscrito Modifica dati su Wikidata · Manuale La Bhagavadgītā (sanscrito, sf.pl.; devanāgarī: भगवद्गीता, "Canto del Divino" o "Canto dell'Adorabile" o, meno comunemente, Śrīmadbhagavadgītā; devanāgarī: श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता, il "Meraviglioso canto del Divino"[2]) è quella parte dall'importante contenuto religioso, di circa 700 versi (śloka, quartine di ottonari) divisi in 18 canti (adhyāya, "letture"), nella versione detta vulgata, collocata nel VI parvan del grande poema epico Mahābhārata. La Bhagavadgītā ha valore di testo sacro, ed è divenuto nella storia tra i testi più prestigiosi, diffusi e amati tra i fedeli dell'Induismo. In tale contesto la Bhagavadgītā è il testo sacro per eccellenza delle scuole viṣṇuite e kṛṣṇaite, eredi dell'antico culto devozionale del Bhagavat, ma è venerato come testo rivelato anche dagli śivaiti e dai seguaci dei culti śākta. L'unicità di questo testo, rispetto ad altri coevi, consiste anche nel fatto che qui non viene data un'astratta descrizione del Bhagavat[3], qui inteso come il dio Kṛṣṇa, la Persona Suprema che si rivela, ma questa figura divina è un personaggio protagonista che parla in prima persona, offrendo all'uditore la sua darśana (dottrina) completa. Indice 1	Datazione e testi 2	Contenuti e dottrine 3	I 18 "canti" della Bhagavadgītā 4	Note 5	Principali edizioni italiane 6	Voci correlate 7	Altri progetti 8	Collegamenti esterni Datazione e testi Manoscritto della Bhagavadgītā risalente al XIX secolo (Southern Asian Collection, Asian Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC) Eliot Deutsch e Lee Siegel[4] datano l'inserimento della Bhagavadgītā nel Mahābhārata, probabilmente, al III secolo a.C.[5]. Altri autori giungono fino al I sec. d.C. Il primo testo completo di commentario, la Bhagavadgītābhāṣya, è opera di Śaṅkara (788-821) anche se, evidenzia Mario Piantelli[6], vi sono certamente delle redazioni anteriori più estese di cui restano tuttavia solo tracce emergenti in quella versione detta kaśmīra commentata da Rāmakaṇṭha (VII-VIII secolo) e, successivamente da Abhinavagupta (X-XI secolo). Comunque sia il poema presenta diversi rimaneggiamenti operati nel corso del tempo[7]. Esistono dunque due recensioni della Bhagavadgītā giunte a noi: la prima, la più diffusa in tutta l'India, è detta vulgata e si compone di complessivi settecento versi, ed è quella già commentata da Śaṅkara nell'VIII secolo d.C.; la seconda, detta kaśmīra, è leggermente più lunga, comprendendo complessive trecento varianti minori, ed è quella commentata da Rāmakaṇṭha (VII-VIII secolo) e, successivamente da Abhinavagupta (X-XI secolo). Le differenze tra le due recensioni non manifestano, tuttavia, diversità dottrinali. Antonio Rigopoulos[8] osserva come si possa ipotizzare che già a partire dall'XI secolo la versione detta vulgata si sia affermata come "canonica". Dal punto di vista filologico sono state individuate tre stratificazioni temporali all'interno di questa opera: la prima, di contenuto "epico", è la più antica; la seconda che riporta insegnamenti propri delle dottrine del Sāṃkhya-Yoga (canti 2-5); la terza è la stratificazione "teista" legata al culto di Kṛṣṇa (canti 7-11), la quale trova, nel canto 12, un vero e proprio inno alla bhakti[9]. Nella sua redazione finale[10], secondo Mircea Eliade, la Bhagavadgītā riassume quattro dottrine: «In sostanza, si può dire che il poema 1) insegna l'equivalenza del Vedānta (cioè la dottrina delle Upanishad) del Sāṃkhya e dello Yoga; 2) stabilisce la parità delle tre 'vie' (marga), rappresentate dall'attività rituale, dalla conoscenza metafisica e dalla pratica yoga; 3) s'insegna a giustificare un certo modo di esistere nel tempo, in altre parole assume e valorizza la storicità della condizione umana; 4) proclama la superiorità di una quarta 'via' soteriologica: la devozione per Vishnu (-Krishna).» (Mircea Eliade. Storia delle credenze e delle idee religiose, vol. II, pag. 239) Contenuti e dottrine MENU0:00 Il testo qui cantato corrisponde al II, 47 della Bhagavadgītā; è Kṛṣṇa che parla: (SA) «karmaṇy evādhikāras te mā phaleṣu kadācana mā karma-phala-hetur bhūr mā te saṅgo 'stv akarmaṇi»	(IT) «Compi i tuoi atti (karmaṇy ), ma non occuparti del loro frutto (phaleṣu). Non avere come movente il frutto delle tue azioni, non avere attaccamento (saṅgo) nemmeno per la non-azione (akarmaṇi ).» (Bhagavadgītā, II, 47) L'episodio narrato nel testo si colloca nel momento in cui il virtuoso guerriero Arjuna - uno dei fratelli Pāṇḍava, figlio del dio Indra, prototipo dell'eroe - sta per dare inizio alla battaglia di Kurukṣetra, che durerà 18 giorni, durante la quale si troverà a dover combattere e quindi uccidere i membri della sua stessa famiglia, parenti, mentori e amici, facenti tuttavia parte della fazione dei malvagi Kaurava, usurpatori del trono di Hastināpura. Di fronte a questa prospettiva drammatica, Arjuna si lascia prendere dallo sconforto, rifiutandosi di combattere. A questo punto il suo auriga Kṛṣṇa, principe del clan degli Yādava ma in realtà avatāra di Viṣṇu qui inteso come divinità suprema, si avvia ad impartirgli degli insegnamenti, dal profondo contenuto religioso, per dissiparne i dubbi e lo sconforto imponendogli di rispettare i suoi doveri di kṣatriya, quindi di combattere e uccidere, senza farsi coinvolgere da quelle stesse azioni (karman). Per convincere Arjuna della bontà dei propri suggerimenti Kṛṣṇa espone una vera e propria rivelazione religiosa finendo per manifestarsi come l'Essere Supremo. Innanzitutto Kṛṣṇa precisa che la sua "teologia" e la sua "rivelazione" non sono affatto delle novità (IV,1 e 3) in quanto già da lui trasmesse a Vivasvat e da questi a Manu in tempi immemorabili, ma che tale conoscenza venne poi a mancare e con essa il Dharma; quando ciò accadde (ed ogni volta che accade), per proteggere gli esseri benevoli dalle distruzioni provocate da quelli malvagi, lo stesso Kṛṣṇa affermò, «io vengo all'esistenza» (IV,8; dottrina dell'avatāra). Kṛṣṇa si manifesta nel mondo affinché gli uomini, e in questo caso Arjuna, lo imitino (III, 23-4). Così Kṛṣṇa, l'Essere Supremo manifestatosi, spiega che ogni aspetto della Creazione proviene da Lui (VII, 4-6, ed altri) per mezzo della sua prakṛti, e che, nonostante questo, egli rimane solo uno spettatore di questa creazione: (SA) «prakṛtiṃ svām avaṣṭabhya visṛjāmi punaḥ punaḥ bhūta-grāmam imaṃ kṛtsnam avaśaṃ prakṛter vaśāt na ca māṃ tāni karmāṇi nibadhnanti dhanaṃjaya udāsīnavad āsīnam asaktaṃ teṣu karmasu» (IT) «Padroneggiando la Mia Natura Cosmica, Io emetto sempre di nuovo tutto questo insieme di esseri, loro malgrado e grazie al potere della Mia Natura. E gli atti non Mi legano, Dhanaṃjaya[11]; come qualcuno, seduto, si disinteressa di un affare, così io rimango senza attaccamento per i miei Atti.» (Bhagavadgītā, IX 8-9. Traduzione di Anne-Marie Esnoul) Ogni essere umano deve quindi imparare a fare lo stesso essendo legato alle proprie azioni, in quanto anche se si astiene dal compierle, come stava per fare Arjuna rifiutandosi di combattere, i guṇa agiranno lo stesso incatenandolo al proprio karman (III, 4-5), egli deve comunque compiere il proprio dovere (svadharma, vedi anche più avanti) persino in modo "mediocre" (III, 35). Tutto è infatti condizionato dai tre guṇa[12] che procedono da Kṛṣṇa senza condizionarlo. Mircea Eliade così riassume l'insegnamento principale di Kṛṣṇa ad Arjuna e a tutti gli uomini, cioè di imitarlo: «La lezione che se ne può trarre è la seguente: pur accettando la 'situazione storica' creata dai guṇa (e la si deve accettare perché i guṇa derivano da Krishna) e agendo secondo le necessità di questa 'condizione', l'uomo deve rifiutarsi di valorizzare i propri atti e, perciò, di accordare un valore assoluto alla propria condizione» (Mircea Eliade. Op. cit.. pag. 241) «In questo senso si può affermare che la Bhagavad Gītā si sforza di 'salvare' tutti gli atti umani, di 'giustificare' ogni azione profana: infatti, per il fatto stesso di non godere più dei loro 'frutti', l'uomo trasforma i propri atti in sacrifici, cioè dinamismi transpersonali che contribuiscono a mantenere l'ordine cosmico» (Mircea Eliade. Op. cit.. pag. 241) Quindi la 'novità' della 'rivelazione' della Bhagavadgītā consiste nel comunicare agli esseri umani che non solo il sacrificio vedico tiene unito il cosmo, ma anche qualsiasi suo atto purché questo sia privo di attaccamento o di desiderio verso il 'risultato', ovvero gli venga attribuito un significato che prescinda dall'interesse di chi lo agisce; e tale meta è raggiungibile solo con lo yoga. Ma se: (SA) «tapasvibhyo 'dhiko yogī jñānibhyo 'pi mato 'dhikaḥ karmibhyaś cādhiko yogī tasmād yogī bhavārjuna» (IT) «Lo yogin è superiore agli asceti[13], lo yogin è superiore anche agli uomini di conoscenza[14], lo yogin prevale sui sacrificanti[15]. Per questo, o Arjuna, divieni uno yogin» (Bhagavadgītā VI,46.) Tale obiettivo diviene conseguito pienamente solo se lo yogin focalizza la sua attenzione, e quindi dedica i suoi atti, in Dio, in Kṛṣṇa (VI, 30-1). In questo modo la Bhagavadgītā proclama la superiorità della bhakti su ogni altra 'via' spirituale o mondana; la bhakti è la 'via' suprema[16]. Da ciò ne consegue che se nel Veda è il brahmodya, la contesa sacrificale, il luogo per conquistare ruolo e beni terreni; nei Brāhmaṇa è lo yajña, il rito sacrificale officiato da una casta sacerdotale maschile che garantisce in una vita futura, anche successiva a questa, i benefici cercati[17], e nelle Upaniṣad è il vimokṣa, la liberazione dalla mondanità l'obiettivo ultimo[18], nella Bhagavadgītā l'intera vita ordinaria acquisisce il luogo ultimo di salvezza, se essa è bhakti, devozione offerta per intero a Dio, Kṛṣṇa. (SA) «yo māṃ paśyati sarvatra sarvaṃ ca mayi paśyati tasyāhaṃ na praṇaśyāmi sa ca me na praṇaśyati sarva-bhūta-sthitaṃ yo māṃ bhajaty ekatvam āsthitaḥ sarvathā vartamāno 'pi sa yogī mayi vartate» (IT) «Chi vede in me tutte le cose e tutte le cose in me, per costui io non sono perduto, per me egli non è perduto. Lo yogin che mi onora come presente in tutti gli esseri e si rifugia in questa unità, questi è sempre in me, in qualsiasi stato si trovi» (Bhagavadgītā, VI, 30-1. Traduzione di Raniero Gnoli, in Op. cit., pag. 806) La novità teologica espressa dalla Bhagavadgītā, rispetto all'ideale della "rinuncia" al mondo propria delle dottrine upaniṣadiche, e di alcune coeve buddhiste e jainiste, consiste dunque in una lettura e in un giudizio diversi della condotta umana e del mondo: «Dato che l'universo intero è la creazione, anzi l'epifania di Kirshna (Vishnu), vivere nel mondo, partecipare alle sue strutture, non costituisce una 'cattiva azione'; la 'cattiva azione' è invece quella di credere che il mondo, il tempo e la storia dispongano di una realtà propria e indipendente, vale a dire che non esista null'altro al di fuori del mondo e della temporalità. L'idea è, certo, panindiana; ma nella Bhagavad Gītā essa riceve la sua espressione più coerente» (Mircea Eliade, Storia delle credenze e delle idee religiose, vol.II. Milano, Rizzoli, 1996, p.244) Partendo dalla consapevolezza che l'essere umano non può non avere una condotta, tale condotta, quando è "mondana", è governata da attaccamenti/desideri nei confronti del potere, del piacere e della ricchezza, e quindi può provocare "sofferenza", e, nel caso di un guerriero, una sofferenza fondata anche sul "senso di colpa" per la hiṃsā, la "violenza", nei confronti degli altri. A fronte di ciò, l'alternativa upaniṣadica, e delle coeve dottrine buddhiste, consisterebbe nel rifiuto di condurre una vita "mondana", scegliendo una via ascetica, priva di desideri e priva di hiṃsā (quindi praticando l'ahiṃsā, la "non violenza"). L'insegnamento "divino" della Bhagavadgītā consiste qui nel rifiutare anche questa seconda opzione, rinunciare anche alla "rinuncia", e vivere nel mondo offrendo i risultati, i frutti della propria condotta, delle proprie azioni, non ai propri interessi personali ma al Dio di cui si è devoti. I frutti delle proprie condotte, delle proprie azioni (naiṣkarmya), vanno quindi offerti a Dio, sacrificando il proprio piccolo "io" fenomenico (ahaṃkāra). Nel caso di un guerriero, di uno kṣatra , la condotta di questi deve sempre rispettare i suoi "doveri di casta" (svadharma) e questi "doveri" devono sempre prevalere sulle norme generali (sāmānyadharma) che di regola predicano ahiṃsā, la "non-violenza". Questo perché ognuno, in questo caso lo kṣatra , deve offrire tutte le sue azioni, anche quelle "violente" ma frutto comunque del suo dovere di "casta", a Dio e quindi al "bene del mondo" (lokasaṃgraha). «Nell'insegnamento del karmayoga l'ideale della rinuncia non è rigettato quanto piuttosto metabolizzato/interiorizzato e universalmente esteso, in una chiamata a "vivere nel mondo pur non essendo del mondo": qui sta il genio della Bhagavadgītā. Si tratta d'un ampliamento della via alla liberazione che ha avuto conseguenze d'enorme portata, nella prospettiva d'una santità "laica".» (Antonio Rigopoulos in Lo Hinduismo antico (a cura di Francesco Sferra). Milano, Mondadori, 2010, p. CLXXX) I 18 "canti" della Bhagavadgītā I diciotto canti che costituiscono la Bhagavadgītā corrispondono ai capitoli dal 25º al 42º del sesto libro ( Bhīṣmaparvan, "Libro di Bhīṣma") del Mahābhārata.[19] nella sua edizione detta "settentrionale" (o vulgata), e ai capitoli dal 23º e 40º nella sua edizione detta "critica". 1: Arjuna-viṣāda-yogaḥ, "Lo sconforto di Arjuna": 47 versi, nella recensione detta vulgata. 2: Sāṅkhya-yogaḥ , "Il sāṅkhya": 72 versi. 3: Karma-yogaḥ, "L'azione": 43 versi. 4: Jñāna-karma-sannyāsa-yogaḥ, "Conoscenza-azione-rinuncia": 42 versi 5: Sannyāsa-yogaḥ , La rinuncia ai frutti dell'azione": 29 versi. 6: Dhyāna-yogaḥ , "La meditazione": 47 versi. 7: Jñāna-vijñāna-yogaḥ , "La conoscenza e la consapevolezza": 30 versi. 8: Tāraka-brahma-yogaḥ, "La Realtà Suprema": 28 versi. 9: Rāja-vidyā-rāja-guhya-yogaḥ, "La sapienza regale e del regale segreto": 34 versi. 10: Vibhūti-yogaḥ , "Le manifestazioni divine": 42 versi. 11: Viśva-rūpa-darśana-yogaḥ, "La visione di colui la cui forma è il tutto": 42 versi. 12: Bhakti-yogaḥ, "La devozione": 20 versi. 13: Kṣetra-kṣetrajña-yogaḥ , "Il 'campo' e il 'conoscitore del campo'": 34 versi. 14: Guṇa-traya-vibhāga-yogaḥ, "La distinzione fra i tre guṇa": 27 versi. 15: Puruṣottama-yogaḥ, "La Persona Suprema": 20 versi. 16: Daivāsura-sampad-vibhāga-yogaḥ, "La distinzione tra il destino divino e quello demoniaco": 24 versi. 17: Śraddhā-traya-vibhāga-yogaḥ, "La distinzione fra i tre tipi di fede": 28 versi. 18: Mokṣa-sannyāsa-yogaḥ, "La liberazione attraverso la rinuncia": 78 versi. Note ^ Si veda anche III: 35 ^ 'Śrīmat' come aggettivo indica ciò che è "bello", "affascinante", "glorioso", "meraviglioso", come nome è invece uno degli epiteti di Viṣṇu. ^ Il termine sanscrito bhagavat indica come sostantivo maschile il "divino" o "colui che è degno di adorazione" ed indica in questo contesto il divino Kṛṣṇa considerato come espressione della "divinità suprema". ^ Encyclopedia of Religion, NY, MacMillan, 2006, vol. 2, p. 852. ^ Anche Margaret Sutley e James Sutley A Dictionary of Hinduism, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1977; trad.it. Dizionario dell'Induismo, Roma, Ubaldini, 1980 datano questo inserimento tra il IV e il II secolo a.C. ^ In Hindūismo i testi e le dottrine in Hindūismo, a cura di Giovanni Filoramo, Bari, Laterza, 2002, p. 114. ^ Margaret Sutley e James Sutley Op. cit. ^ p. CLXXVI ^ Antonio Rigopoulos, in Hinduismo antico (a cura di Francesco Sferra), pag. CLXXV. ^ Probabilmente intorno al I secolo d.C., cfr. Antonio Rigopoulos Op.cit.. ^ "Conquistatore di ricchezze", "Vittorioso", è un epiteto di Arjuna. ^ Vedi tra gli altri XVII 7 e segg. ^ Coloro che praticano l'ascesi (tapas). ^ Coloro che conseguono la conoscenza (jñāna). ^ Sugli uomini che celebrano i sacrifici, ovvero coloro che ottengono il frutto delle azioni (karman) sacrificali. ^ Mircea Eliade. Op. cit.. pag. 243 ^ (SA) «atha ha sma āha kauṣītakiḥ parimita phalāni vā etāni karmāṇi yeṣu parimito mantra gaṇaḥ prayujyate atha aparimita phalāni yeṣu aparimito mantra gaṇaḥ prayujyate mano vā etad yad aparimitam prajāpatir vai mano [...] mitam ha vai mitena jayaty amitam amitena» (IT) «Kauṣītakī affermava: limitati sono i risultati dei riti in cui vengono recitate un limitato numero di formule sacrificali- infiniti sono i frutti dei riti in cui vengono recitate un infinito numero di formule sacrificali- la mente è l'infinito- Prajāpati è la mente-[...] si ottiene un limitato attraverso il limitato, l'infinito attraverso l'infinito» (Kauṣitakī Brāhmaṇa XVI, 2,3) ^ (SA) «sa yo manūṣyāṇāṃ rāddhaḥ samṛddho bhavaty anyeṣām adhipatiḥ sarvair mānuṣyakair bhogaiḥ sampannatamaḥ sa manuṣyāṇāṃ parama ānandaḥ atha ye śataṃ manuṣyāṇām ānandāḥ sa ekaḥ pitṝṇāṃ jitalokānām ānandaḥ atha ye śataṃ pitṝṇāṃ jitalokānām ānandāḥ sa eko gandharvaloka ānandaḥ atha ye śataṃ gandharvaloka ānandāḥ sa ekaḥ karmadevānām ānando ye karmaṇā devatvam abhisampadyante atha ye śataṃ karmadevānām ānandāḥ sa eka ājānadevānām ānandaḥ yaś ca śrotriyo 'vṛjino 'kāmahataḥ atha ye śatam ājānadevānām ānandāḥ sa ekaḥ prajāpatiloka ānandaḥ yaś ca śrotriyo 'vṛjino 'kāmahataḥ atha ye śataṃ prajāpatiloka ānandāḥ sa eko brahmaloka ānandaḥ yaś ca śrotriyo 'vṛjino 'kāmahataḥ athaiṣa eva parama ānandaḥ eṣa brahmalokaḥ samrāṭ iti hovāca yājñavalkyaḥ so 'haṃ bhagavate sahasraṃ dadāmi ata ūrdhvaṃ vimokṣāyaiva brūhīti atra ha yājñavalkyo bibhayāṃ cakāra -- medhāvī rājā sarvebhyo māntebhya udarautsīd iti» (IT) «La massima felicità per gli uomini è essere ricchi e agiati e di comandare sugli altri, con disponibilità dei godimenti umani; ma cento felicità degli uomini equivalgono a solo una felicità di colui che ha conquistato il mondo celeste dei Padri; a cento felicità di colui che ha conquistato il mondo celeste dei Padri equivale una sola felicità di colui che ha conquistato il mondo dei Gandharva; a cento felicità di colui che ha conquistato il mondo dei Gandharva corrisponde una felicità di colui che ha conquista la felicità dei Deva, i quali [grazie ai meriti] hanno assunto tale condizione; a cento felicità dei Deva corrisponde una felicità dei Deva primordiali (ājanadeva, Intende i Deva che tali sono sempre stati fin dall'inizio e che non devono la loro condizione alla rinascita.) nonché di un brahmano libero dal peccato e dal desiderio; a cento felicità del mondo di Prajāpati corrisponde ad una sola del Brahman e del brahmano libero dal peccato e dal desiderio e questa è la felicità suprema, grande re, tale è il mondo del Brahman. Così disse Yājñavalkya: "Io ti offro mille vacche, o venerabile; ma tu spiegami ancora cose più alte al fine della liberazione". A questo punto Yājñavalkya si impaurì e pensò: "il re è astuto egli mi ha fatto uscire dalle mie difese".» (Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad IV,3,33) ^ nell'ed. Esnoul del 2007 a p. 5. Principali edizioni italiane Bhagavadgītā: canto del beato, traduzione in esametri dal sanscrito e introduzione di Ida Vassalini, Bari: Laterza, 1943 Bhagavad Gita, saggio introduttivo, commento e note di Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, traduzione del testo sanscrito e del commento di Icilio Vecchiotti, Roma: Ubaldini, 1964 ISBN 88-340-0219-9 Bhagavadgītā: canto del beato, interpretazione lirica italiana secondo la misura dei ritmi originali di Giulio Cogni, Milano: Ceschina, 1973; Roma: Ed. Mediterranee, 19802 La Bhagavad-gita così com'è, trad. dal sanscrito di A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Bhaktivedanta Book Trust (1976) Bhagavad Gita. Nuova traduzione e commento capitoli 1-6, trad. e commento di Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, 1967, edizione italiana Mediterranee, 2003 Bhagavadgītā, a cura di Anne-Marie Esnoul, trad. dal francese Bianca Candian, Milano: Adelphi ("Biblioteca Adelphi" n. 65), 1976, 1984220103; "Gli Adelphi" n. 29, 1991 ISBN 88-459-0851-8; Milano: Feltrinelli ("Oriente Universale Economica" n. 1953), 2007 ISBN 978-88-07-81953-7 La Bhagavad Gita, a cura di Anthony Elenjimittam, trad. dall'inglese Mario Bianco, Milano: Mursia, 1987 ISBN 978-88-425-8824-5 Bhagavadgītā: il canto del beato, a cura di Raniero Gnoli, Torino: UTET, 1976; Milano: Rizzoli ("BUR" L 642), 1992 ISBN 88-17-16642-1 Bhagavad Gita: interpretazione spirituale di Paramahansa Yogananda, 3 volumi, Edizioni Vidyananda, 1992 ISBN 88-86020-11-2 Bhagavadgītā: il canto del glorioso signore, traduzione dal sanscrito e commento di Stefano Piano, Cinisello Balsamo: Paoline, 1994 ISBN 88-215-2827-8; Milano: Fabbri, 1996 Bhagavadgītā, a cura di Tiziana Pontillo, Milano: Vallardi, 1996 ISBN 88-11-91052-8 Bhagavad gita, a cura di Marcello Meli, Milano: Mondadori ("Oscar classici"), 1999 ISBN 88-04-45395-8 Il canto del beato (Bhagavadgītā), a cura di Brunilde Neroni, Padova: Messaggero, 2002 ISBN 88-250-1170-9 Voci correlate Mahābhārata Induismo Altri progetti Collabora a Wikiquote Wikiquote contiene citazioni dalla o sulla Bhagavadgītā Collabora a Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons contiene immagini o altri file su Bhagavadgītā Collegamenti esterni Traduzione integrale e commento dal sito degli Hare Krsna (PDF), su radiokrishna.com. a cura di A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (pdf) Traduzione a cura di Vyasa Sante pdf (PDF), su labhagavadgita.it. URL consultato il 1º maggio 2019 (archiviato dall'url originale il 10 aprile 2018). La Bhagavad Gita tradotta in inglese da Lars Martin Fosse, affiancato da testo originale in sanscrito (caratteri devanāgarī) - pdf (PDF), su yogavidya.com. Traduzione integrale e commenti guida per praticanti yogi (html), su yogafacile.it. URL consultato il 1º maggio 2019 (archiviato dall'url originale il 1º maggio 2019). Altra traduzione integrale (html), di Guido da Todi, su guruji.it. V · D · M Visnù e i suoi avatara V · D · M Divinità e riti propri dell'induismo, del vedismo e del bramanesimo Controllo di autorità	VIAF (EN) 174582282 · LCCN (EN) n79142762 · GND (DE) 4129499-3 · BNF (FR) cb120082703 (data) India Portale India Induismo Portale Induismo Letteratura Portale Letteratura H. W. L. Poonja, chiamato "Papaji“, Poonjaji o "Leone di Lucknow“ (Hariwansh Lal Poonja; Gujranwala, 13 ottobre 1910 – Lucknow, 6 settembre 1997), è stato un saggio indiano della Advaita Vedānta e Bhakti. Avendo varie profonde manifestazioni spirituali da bambino piccolo desiderava sempre „vedere Dio“. Come padre di famiglia del Punjab occidentale viaggiò per l'India e si fece consigliare da saggi e Guru per trovare Dio. La ricerca di Poonjaji terminò con lo sguardo quieto di Ramana Maharshi. Indice 1	Vita 2	L'incontro con Ramana Maharshi 3	Vita dopo l'incontro con Ramana Maharshi 4	Messaggio 5	Opere di Papaji in lingua italiana 6	Bibliografia 7	Voci correlate 8	Collegamenti esterni Vita H.W.L. Poonja nacque a Gujranvalla nel Punjab occidentale, oggi PaKistan, in una famiglia di Saraswati Brahmans. Sua madre era la sorella di Swami Rama Tirtha, uno dei più conosciuti saggi indiani. All'età di otto anni fece un'esperienza profonda ed insolita della consapevolezza pura. Sua madre lo convinse che con l'abbandono alle deità di Hindu e Krishna poteva riavere quest'esperienza totale, così divenne un devoto sincero di Krishna Bhakti. Era un bambino prodigio ed iniziò ad avere delle visioni di Krishna. Nella tradizione di Vaisnava questo è chiamato ricevere "Darśana" da Dio. Trascorse la sua gioventù in una relazione intima con Krishna, che considerava suo amico, giocava con le visioni di questo e si sentì benedetto nell'unione spirituale. Da adulto visse una vita normale, era sposato, crebbe due figli ed era membro dell'esercito inglese, mentre il suo amore per Krishna e le visioni di colui continuarono. Aspirando la sua vita come devoto non era soddisfatto nell'avere visioni temporanei ed era profondamente inquieto quando Krishna non apparì. Era ossessionato dell'idea di poter vedere Dio. Ripeteva continuamente il nome di Krishna (japa) e viaggiava per tutta l'India chiedendo ai saggi se potevano mostrargli come ricevere darsan di Dio volutamente. L'incontro con Ramana Maharshi Dopo il fallimento dei suoi tentativi di poter vedere Dio volutamente, tornò dalla sua famiglia a Lyalpur. Un sadhu gli apparve vicino alla porta e Poonjaji lo invitò ad entrare rivolgendogli le stesse domande già fatte a diversi saggi in tutta l'India. “Mi può far vedere Dio? Se no, mi può dire di uno che lo può fare?” Rimase sorpreso quando il sadhu gli rispose che c'era una persona che gli poteva mostrare Dio, Ramana Maharshi. Ascoltò le informazioni del sadhu per poter trovare Ramana a Tiruvannamalai nell'India del Sud. Alla prima possibilità Poonjaji viaggiò a Tiruvannamalai per incontrare Ramana Maharshi al Sri Ramana Ashram. Era nel 1949 e Poonjaji aveva 31 anni. Incontrando Ramana ed avendo un'altra visione di Dio, Ramana lo spinse nella direzione del suo vero Sé. Gli mostrò che un Dio che appare e poi sparisce non è permanente, non è l'ultima verità. Solamente colui che è consciente di questo Dio è consapevole. Egli incoraggiò Poonjaji di trovare quello che visse la visione di Dio, perché l'Uno (la consapevolezza) non va e viene. Ramana disse a Poonjaji di trovare il ricercatore stesso. Dopo aver sentito questo, Poonjaji ebbe un'esperienza molto profonda, e con la guida di Ramana divenne consapevole del cuore spirituale, che percepì aperto e fiorito. Tuttavia continuò con lo japa del nome di Krishna e non era impressionato dell'istruzione ricevuta. A questo punto, Poonjaji continuò il suo cammino come devoto, avendo tante visioni di deità Hindu. Non era del tutto convinto del valore della filosofia dell'Advaita Vedānta. Questo ebbe una fine quando in una visione Ramana gli disse che la devozione per Krishna era la verità assoluta. Poonja si sentì obbligato di dover tornare al Sri Ramanasram e di chiedere Ramana se lui gli era apparso già prima e se gli aveva mostrato l'importanza del Krishna Bhakti. Ramana non rispose a questa domanda con parole e mentre Poonja aspettava una risposta, arrivarono dei devoti e diedero a Ramana una fotografia di Krishna. Ramana guardò questa foto, piangeva così forte che Poonja si convinse che Ramana stesso fu un bhakta segreto. Soltanto dopo, quando Poonja ebbe una crisi spirituale ed ebbe fiducia che Ramana (il bhakta segreto) lo potesse aiutare, realizzò completamente il Sé oppure l'Ātman. Immediatamente, dopo una vita di devozione, scoprì che non poteva più "pensare" a Dio, che praticare japa o altri esercizi spirituali non era necessario. Profondamente colpito, chiese aiuto a Ramana. Questi rispose che tutto ciò non era un problema, che la sua pratica lo aveva portato al punto in cui si trovava, e che ora poteva essere lasciata: tutto aveva il suo scopo. Sentendo questo, immerso nello sguardo silenzioso del suo guru, Poonjaji percepì il suo corpo purificato, trasformandosi come se rinascesse. In quel momento, immediatamente, capì chi fosse lui stesso e chi fosse sempre stato. Vita dopo l'incontro con Ramana Maharshi Dopo la sua trasformazione rimase nel Sud dell'India fino nel 1947. Durante la separazione dell'India, Ramana lo mandò a casa nel Punjab (adesso parte del nuovo Pakistan) per portare in salvo la sua famiglia a Lucknow. Le ultime parole di Ramana a Poonjaji erano: “Sono con te ovunque tu vada”. Gli anni seguenti Poonjaji guadagnò denaro per mantenere la famiglia, fece incontri con ricercatori e tenne satsang ovunque fu. Nel 1953 incontrò il suo primo discepolo dell'ovest, Henri Le Saux, conosciuto anche come Swami Abhishiktananda, il quale scrisse molti libri sull'Advaita Vedānta e Cristianesimo. Nel 1966 si ritirò ai piedi del Himalaya. Poonjaji si stabilì a Lucknow, dove accolse visitatori di tutto il mondo. Morì il 6 settembre del 1997. Messaggio Poonjaji rifiutò di identificarsi con qualsiasi tradizione e fu considerato severamente radicale nel suo insegnamento diretto. Durante il satsang, l'insegnamento corrispose a quello del suo guru Ramana Maharshi, simile all'Advaita Vedānta, mentre il suo stile di insegnare venne paragonato a quello dei primi maestri Zen. Il suo messaggio, come quello del suo maestro Sri Ramana, era che il Sé fosse già illuminato e libero. Egli insistette che definitivamente non c'era differenza tra guru e devoto, non c'era né insegnante, né devoto, né messaggio. Le parole possono soltanto indirizzare all'ultima verità, ma non possono mai essere questa. Il solo capire con la mente, senza la realizzazione diretta della verità con l'autoricerca, non basta. Come Sri Ramana, Poonja insegnò l'autoindagine, che include il trovare dell'Io personale, l'investigare diretto dell'Io ed il concentrarsi su questo. Poonja capì subito che bhakta devoti come Kabir, Ravidas, Sukdev e Mirabai erano anche risvegliati nella stessa libertà, conosciuta come Sahaja Samādhi, chiamato Dio. Come Sri Ramana, egli disse che l'insegnamento con il silenzio era più importante dell'insegnamento con le parole. Tante persone che lo incontrarono fecero l'esperienza della trasmissione potente di coscienza, presenza, grazia, amore, beatitudine o shaktipat, spesso Poonja li spinse direttamente nell'esperienza del Sé, a volte rifiutò insistentemente l'idea della trasmissione. Oggi i discepoli di Poonjaji condividono Satsang in diversi posti in tutto il mondo. I più conosciuti sono Neeraja, Gangaji, Madhukar, Mooji, Ganga Mira, Catherine Ingram e Yudhishtara. David Godman si trasferì a Lucknow nel 1992 e rimase con lui fino al 1997. Scrisse la sua biografia e negli anni seguenti pubblicò diversi libri, inclusi interviste con Papaji, un'antologia, e Nothing Ever Happened (Nulla è mai successo), una biografia di 3 volumi in 1200 pagine. Opere di Papaji in lingua italiana H.W.L Poonja, Dialoghi col Maestro, Ubaldini editore H.W.L Poonja, Svegliati e ruggisci, Ubaldini editore H.W.L Poonja, Il vuoto che danza, Psiche 2 H.W.L Poonja, Risvegliarsi dal sogno, Diari di H.W.L. Poonja, Libreria editrice Psiche H.W.L Poonja, Il fuoco della libertà, Ubaldini editore H.W.L Poonja. Ramana Maharshi il mio Maestro "Io sono con te ovunque tu sia". Diari di H.W.L. Poonja. Libreria editrice Psiche DVD con sottotitoli in italiano: H.W.L Poonja, Il testimone, Sri Papaji Center H.W.L Poonja, Mi dia L'illuminazione, Sri Papaji Center H.W.L Poonja, La fiamma interiore, Sri Papaji Center H.W.L Poonja, Torna al silenzio, Sri Papaji Center H.W.L Poonja, Libertà dalla mente, Sri Papaji Center H.W.L Poonja. Chi sei tu. Sri Papaji Center H.W.L Poonja. Adorazione. Sri Papaji Center H.W.L Poonja. Nozze mistiche. Sri Papaji Center H.W.L Poonja. Tutto è una nozione. Sri Papaji Center H.W.L Poonja. Estingui ogni ricerca. Sri Papaji Center H.W.L Poonja. È così semplice. Sri Papaji Center H.W.L Poonja. Morte e eternità. Sri Papaji Center H.W.L Poonja. Niente è mai accaduto. Sri Papaji Center Bibliografia Madhukar, La via più semplice, OM edizioni, Bologna, ISBN 978-88-95687-22-3 (EN) David Godman, Papaji: Interviews (A collection of Interviews with Poonja), Avadhuta Foundation, 1993 (EN) Papaji Interviews & Reflections (earlier Indian edition, essentially a different book), Pragati, 1992 (EN) David Godman, Nothing Ever Happened (A three volume biography), Avadhuta Foundation (EN) Prashanti (a cura di), This: Prose and Poetry of Dancing Emptiness (the essence of Papaji's teachings), VidyaSagar Publications e Weiserbooks.com (EN) Prashanti (a cura di), The Truth Is (the essence of Papaji's teachings with dialogues), VidyaSagar Publications e Weiserbooks.com (EN) Eli Jaxon-Bear, Wake Up and Roar: Satsang With H. W. L. Poonja (two volumes) (EN) David Godman, The Fire of Freedom: Satsang with Papaji, Avadhuta Foundation (EN) Andrew Cohen e Murray Feldman, My Master is My Self, 1989 Voci correlate Ramana Maharshi Madhukar Collegamenti esterni HOME ufficiale, su poonja.com. HOME di Papaji, su papaji.com. Testi su Papaji, su sripapajicenter.net Nisargadatta Maharaj[1] (17 April 1897 – 8 September 1981), born Maruti Shivrampant Kambli, was a Hindu guru of nondualism, belonging to the Inchagiri Sampradaya, a lineage of teachers from the Navnath Sampradaya and Lingayat Shaivism. The publication in 1973 of I Am That, an English translation of his talks in Marathi by Maurice Frydman, brought him worldwide recognition and followers, especially from North America and Europe.[2] Contents 1	Biography 1.1	Early life 1.2	Sadhana 1.3	Later years 2	Teachings 2.1	Style of teaching 2.2	Awareness of true nature 2.3	Self-enquiry 2.4	Devotion and mantra repetition 2.5	Scriptures 2.6	Nisarga Yoga 3	Lineage 3.1	Disciples 3.2	Successors 4	See also 5	Notes 6	References 7	Sources 7.1	Web sources 8	Further reading 9	DVDs 10	External links Biography Early life Nisargadatta was born on 17 April 1897 to Shivrampant Kambli and Parvati bai, in Bombay.[web 1][dubious – discuss] The day was also Hanuman Jayanti, the birthday of Hanuman, hence the boy was named 'Maruti', after him.[3][web 2][note 1] His parents were followers of the Varkari sampradaya,[web 3] an egalitarian Vaishnavite bhakti tradition which worships Vithoba. His father, Shivrampant, worked as a domestic servant in Mumbai and later became a petty farmer in Kandalgaon. Maruti Shivrampant Kambli was brought up in Kandalgaon, a small village in the Sindhudurga district of Maharashtra, with his two brothers, four sisters and deeply religious parents.[web 4] In 1915, after his father died, he moved to Bombay to support his family back home, following his elder brother. Initially he worked as a junior clerk at an office but quickly he opened a small goods store, mainly selling beedis (leaf-rolled cigarettes) and soon owned a string of eight retail shops.[web 5] In 1924 he married Sumatibai and they had three daughters and a son. Sadhana Nisargadatta Maharaj met his guru Siddharameshwar Maharaj in 1933. In 1933, he was introduced to his guru, Siddharameshwar Maharaj, the head of the Inchegiri branch of the Navnath Sampradaya, by his friend Yashwantrao Baagkar. His guru told him, "You are not what you take yourself to be...".[web 6] Siddharameshwar initiated him into the Inchegiri Sampradaya, giving him meditation-instruction and a mantra, which he immediately began to recite.[web 3] Siddharameshwar gave Nisargadatta instructions for self-enquiry which he followed verbatim, as he himself recounted later: My Guru ordered me to attend to the sense 'I am' and to give attention to nothing else. I just obeyed. I did not follow any particular course of breathing, or meditation, or study of scriptures. Whatever happened, I would turn away my attention from it and remain with the sense 'I am'. It may look too simple, even crude. My only reason for doing it was that my Guru told me so. Yet it worked![4] Following his guru's instructions to concentrate on the feeling "I Am", he used all his spare time looking at himself in silence, and remained in that state for the coming years, practising meditation and singing devotional bhajans:[web 7] My Guru told me: "...Go back to that state of pure being, where the ‘I am’ is still in its purity before it got contaminated with ‘this I am’ or ‘that I am.’ Your burden is of false self-identifications—abandon them all." My guru told me, "Trust me, I tell you: you are Divine. Take it as the absolute truth. Your joy is divine, your suffering is divine too. All comes from God. Remember it always. You are God, your will alone is done." I did believe him and soon realized how wonderfully true and accurate were his words. I did not condition my mind by thinking, "I am God, I am wonderful, I am beyond." I simply followed his instruction, which was to focus the mind on pure being, "I am," and stay in it. I used to sit for hours together, with nothing but the "I am" in my mind and soon the peace and joy and deep all-embracing love became my normal state. In it all disappeared—myself, my guru, the life I lived, the world around me. Only peace remained, and unfathomable silence. (I Am That, Dialogue 51, April 16, 1971).[web 3] After an association that lasted hardly two and a half years, Siddharameshwar Maharaj died on 9 November 1936.[5][web 3] In 1937, Maharaj left Mumbai and travelled across India.[web 8] After eight months he returned to his family in Mumbai in 1938.[6] On the journey home his state of mind changed, realizing that "nothing was wrong anymore."[web 3] He spent the rest of his life in Mumbai, maintaining one shop to earn an income.[web 3] Later years Between 1942–1948 he suffered two personal losses, first the death of his wife, Sumatibai, followed by the death of his daughter. He started to give initiations in 1951, after a personal revelation from his guru, Siddharameshwar Maharaj.[web 3] After he retired from his shop in 1966, Nisargadatta Maharaj continued to receive and teach visitors in his home, giving discourses twice a day, until his death on 8 September 1981 at the age of 84, of throat cancer.[web 9] Teachings Style of teaching Nisargadatta gave talks and answered questions at his humble flat in Khetwadi, Mumbai, where a mezzanine room was created for him to receive disciples and visitors. This room was also used for daily chantings, bhajans (devotional songs), meditation sessions, and discourses.[web 3] Cathy Boucher notes that the Inchagiri Sampradaya emphasized mantra meditation from its inception in the early 19th century, but that the emphasis shifted toward a form of Self-enquiry with Sri Siddharameshwar.[7] Nevertheless, Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj [...] still gave mantra initiation, with the underlying point being that the mantra was more than sound, it was the Absolute Itself which could be reverberated throughout life in all circumstance.[7] Boucher also notes that Nisargadatta adopted a different mode of instruction, through questions and answers, for his western disciples.[7] Many of Nisargadatta Maharaj's talks were recorded, and formed the basis of I Am That as well as of the several other books attributed to him.[8] Awareness of true nature Nisargadatta's "I Am That" in Hindi. Nisargadatta's "I Am That" in English. According to Timothy Conway, Nisargadatta's only subject was ...our real Identity as the birthless-deathless, infinite-eternal Absolute Awareness or Parabrahman, and Its play of emanated universal consciousness. For Maharaj, our only "problem" (an imagined one!) is a case of mistaken identity: we presume to be an individual, and, originally and fundamentally, we are not an individual, we are intrinsically always and only the Absolute.[web 3] Nisargadatta explains: The life force [prana] and the mind are operating [of their own accord], but the mind will tempt you to believe that it is "you". Therefore understand always that you are the timeless spaceless witness. And even if the mind tells you that you are the one who is acting, don't believe the mind. [...] The apparatus [mind, body] which is functioning has come upon your original essence, but you are not that apparatus.[9] In Consciousness and the Absolute, Nisargadatta Maharaj further explains: In the consciousness hierarchy there are three stages: 1. Jivatman is the one who identifies himself with the body-mind. One who thinks I am a body, a personality, an individual apart from the world. He excludes and isolates himself from the world as a separate personality because of identification with the body and the mind. 2. Next only the beingness, or the consciousness, which is the world. "I Am" means my whole world. Just being and the world. Together with the beingness the world is also felt - that is Atman. 3. The Ultimate principle that knows this beingness cannot be termed at all. It cannot be approached or conditioned by any words. That is the Ultimate state. The hierarchy I explain in common words, like: I have a grandson (that is jivatma). I have a son and I am the grandfather. Grandfather is the source of the son and grandson. The three stages cannot be termed as knowledge. The term knowledge comes at beingness level. I have passed on to you the essence of my teachings.[10] Self-enquiry According to Conway, awareness of the Absolute could be regained by ... a radical disidentification from the dream of "me and my world" via intensely meditative self-inquiry (atma-vicara) and supreme Wisdom-Knowledge (vijñana or jñana). "I know only Atma-yoga, which is 'Self-Knowledge,' and nothing else.... My process is Atma-yoga, which means abidance in the Self."[web 3] Devotion and mantra repetition Nisargadatta was critical of a merely intellectual approach to nondual Truth.[web 3] He had a strong devotional zeal towards his own guru,[web 3] and suggested the path of devotion, Bhakti yoga, to some of his visitors, as he believed the path of knowledge, Jnana yoga was not the only approach to Truth. Nisargadatta also emphasized love of Guru and God,[11][web 3] and the practice of mantra repetition and singing bhajans, devotional songs.[web 3][note 2] Scriptures According to Timothy Conway, Nisargadatta often read Marathi scriptures: Nath saint Jnanesvar's Amritanubhava and Jnanesvari (Gita Commentary); Varkari Sants, namely Eknatha’s Bhagavat (Eknathi Bhagavata, a rewrite of the Bhagavad Purana), Ramdas' Dasbodha, and Tukaram's poems; but also the Yoga Vasistha, Adi Shankara's treatises, and some major Upanishads.[web 3] Nisarga Yoga Nisargadatta taught what has been called Nisarga Yoga[12] (Nisarga can be translated as "nature").[13] In I Am That, Nisarga Yoga is defined as living life with "harmlessness," "friendliness," and "interest," abiding in "spontaneous awareness" while being "conscious of effortless living."[14] The practice of this form of Yoga involves meditating on one's sense of "I am", "being" or "consciousness" with the aim of reaching its ultimate source prior to this sense, which Nisargadatta called the "Self". The second edition of I Am That includes an epilogue titled Nisarga Yoga by Maurice Frydman which includes this passage: "This dwelling on the sense ‘I am’ is the simple, easy and natural Yoga, the Nisarga Yoga. There is no secrecy in it and no dependence; no preparation is required and no initiation. Whoever is puzzled by his very existence as a conscious being and earnestly wants to find his own source, can grasp the ever-present sense of ‘I am’ and dwell on it assiduously and patiently, till the clouds obscuring the mind dissolve and the heart of being is seen in all its glory."[12] Nisargadatta did not prescribe a specific practice for self-knowledge but advised his disciples, "Don't pretend to be what you are not, don't refuse to be what you are."[15] By means of self-enquiry in the tradition of Advaita Vedanta, he advised, "Why don't you enquire how real are the world and the person?".[16] Nisargadatta frequently spoke about the importance of having the "inner conviction" about one's true nature and without such Self-knowledge one would continue to suffer.[13] Nisargadatta claimed that the names of the Hindu deities Shiva, Rama and Krishna were the names of nature (Nisarga) personified,[13] and that all of life arises from the same non-dual source or Self. Remembrance of this source was the core of Nisargadatta's message: ‘You are not your body, but you are the consciousness in the body, because of which you have the awareness of ‘I am’. It is without words, just pure beingness. It has become soul of the world. In the absence of your consciousness, the world will not be experienced. Hence, you are the consciousness… remember what you have heard… meditate on it. Meditation means you have to hold consciousness by itself. The consciousness should give attention to itself. This consciousness is Ishwara. As there is no God other than this consciousness, worship it.’ ‘The knowledge “I am” is God. It is Ishwara, as well as maya. Maya is God’s power. All the names of God are of this consciousness only in different forms. Remember the fact “I am not the body” and get firmly established. That is the sign of a true seeker.’[17] The Seven Principles of Nisarga Yoga (As identified by Nic Higham, 2018) [18] Non-identification and right understanding Interest and earnestness Spontaneity and effortlessness Attentiveness to being Right action Going within to go beyond Awareness of Self Lineage Main article: Inchagiri Sampradaya Disciples Among his best known disciples are Maurice Frydman, Sailor Bob Adamson, Stephen Howard Wolinsky (born 31 January 1950), Jean Dunn, Alexander Smit (Sri Parabrahmadatta Maharaj) (1948-1998), Douwe Tiemersma (7 January 1945 – 3 January 2013), Robert Powell, Timothy Conway, Wayne Dyer[19] and Ramesh Balsekar (1917-2009). A less well known disciple is Sri Ramakant Maharaj (born 8 July 1941), who received the naam mantra from Nisargadatta in 1962, spent the next 19 years with the master.[web 10][web 11] and claims to be "the only Indian direct disciple of Shri Nisargadatta Maharaj" who offers initiation into this lineage.[web 12] Sachin Kshirsagar, who has published a series of books on Nisargadatta in the Marathi language[web 13] and also re-published Master of Self Realization, says to have received the Naam (Mantra) in a dream from Shree Nisargadatta Maharaj on 17 Oct., 2011. Successors David Godman gives the following account of an explanation by Nisargadatta of the succession of Gurus in the Inchagiri Sampradaya: I sit here every day answering your questions, but this is not the way that the teachers of my lineage used to do their work. A few hundred years ago there were no questions and answers at all. Ours is a householder lineage, which means everyone had to go out and earn his living. There were no meetings like this where disciples met in large numbers with the Guru and asked him questions. Travel was difficult. There were no buses, trains and planes. In the old days the Guru did the traveling on foot, while the disciples stayed at home and looked after their families. The Guru walked from village to village to meet the disciples. If he met someone he thought was ready to be included in the sampradaya, he would initiate him with mantra of the lineage. That was the only teaching given out. The disciple would repeat the mantra and periodically the Guru would come to the village to see what progress was being made. When the Guru knew that he was about to pass away, he would appoint one of the householder-devotees to be the new Guru, and that new Guru would then take on the teaching duties: walking from village to village, initiating new devotees and supervising the progress of the old ones.[web 14] According to David Godman, Nisargadatta was not allowed by Siddharameshwar to appoint a successor, because he "wasn't realised himself when Siddharameshwar passed away."[web 14] Nisargadatta started to initiate others in 1951, after receiving an inner revelation from Siddharamesvar.[web 3] Nisargadatta himself explains: The Navnath Sampradaya is only a tradition, way of teaching and practice. It does not denote a level of consciousness. If you accept a Navnath Sampradaya teacher as your Guru, you join his Sampradaya. Usually you receive a token of his grace - a look, a touch, or a word, sometimes a vivid dream or a strong remembrance.[20] See also Maurice Frydman Ramana Maharshi Ramesh Balsekar Samarth Ramdas Robert Adams Notes Samarth Ramdas (17th century), the author of the Dasbodh, an important scripture in the Inchegeri Sampradaya, was a devotee of Hanuman. Nisargadatta himself said to a visitor: I may talk Non-duality to some of the people who come here. That is not for you and you should not pay any attention to what I am telling others. The book of my conversations [I Am That] should not be taken as the last word on my teachings. I had given some answers to questions of certain individuals. Those answers were intended for those people and not for all. Instruction can be on an individual basis only. The same medicine cannot be prescribed for all. Nowadays people are full of intellectual conceit. They have no faith in the ancient traditional practices leading up to Self-Knowledge. They want everything served to them on a platter. The path of Knowledge makes sense to them and because of that they may want to practice it. They will then find that it requires more concentration than they can muster and, slowly becoming humble, they will finally take up easier practices like repetition of a mantra or worship of a form. Slowly the belief in a Power greater than themselves will dawn on them and a taste for devotion will sprout in their heart. Then only will it be possible for them to attain purity of mind and concentration.[web 3] References The American pronunciation of his first name is /ˌnɪsərɡəˈdɑːtə/ NISS-ər-gə-DAH-tə or /nɪˌsɑːrɡəˈdɑːtə/ nih-SAR-gə-DAH-tə, whereas his last name is pronounced /ˌmɑːhəˈrɑːdʒ/ MAH-hə-RAHJ or /ˌmɑːhəˈrɑːʒ/ MAH-hə-RAHZH Jones & Ryan 2006, p. 315. I Am That, pp. 6, Who is Nisargadatta Maharaj. I Am That, Chapter 75, p. 375. Prior to Consciousness, pp. 1–2, 4 April 1980. I Am That p.xxviii Boucher & year unknown. Nisargadatta 1973. The Ultimate Medicine, (pp.54 – 70) Consciousness and the Absolute, p.86 Rosner 1987, p. 212–218. 1897-1981., Nisargadatta, Maharaj (1973). I am that : talks with Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj. Frydman, Maurice, 1900-, Dikshit, Sudhakar S. (2nd American ed.). Durham, N.C.: Acorn Press (published 2012). ISBN 9780893860462. OCLC 811788655. Nothing Is Everything The Quintessential Teachings of Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj. Gaitonde, Mohan. Zen Pubns. 2014. ISBN 9789382788973. OCLC 884814258. Nic, Higham (2018). Living the life that you are : finding wholeness when you feel lost, isolated, and afraid. Oakland, CA. ISBN 9781684030859. OCLC 994000117. Maharaj, Nisargadatta (1973). I Am That: Talks with Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj. Frydman, Maurice, 1900–1976., Dikshit, Sudhakar S. (4th ed.). Bombay: Chetana. ISBN 8185300534. OCLC 56487876. Maharaj, Nisargadatta (1973) Gaitonde, Mohan (2017). Self - Love: The Original Dream (Shri Nisargadatta Maharaj's Direct Pointers to Reality). Mumbai: Zen Publications. ISBN 978-9385902833. "Nisarga Yoga". nisargayoga.org. Retrieved 24 July 2018. Dyer 2007, p. 39. Nisargadatta 1973, p. chapter 97. Sources Printed sources Boucher, Cathy (n.d.), The Lineage of Nine Gurus. The Navnath Sampradaya and Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj Dyer, Wayne (2007), Change Your Thoughts – Change Your Life, Hay House, Inc, ISBN 978-1-4019-2052-4 Frydman, Maurice (1987), Navanath Sampradaya. In: I Am That. Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj, Bombay: Chetana Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2006), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Infobase Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5 Nisargadatta (1973), I Am That (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2018, retrieved 19 September 2014 Rosner, Neal (Swami Paramatmananda) (1987), On the Road to Freedom: A Pilgrimage in India, Vol. 1, San Ramon, CA: Mata Amritanandamayi Center Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj - Maurice Frydman - I am That - Tamil Translation - Year 2016 - title Naan Brammam - place =Chennai, India publisher =Kannadhasan Pathippagam ISBN 978-81-8402-782-2 Web sources Biography of Nisargadatta Maharaj "S. Gogate & P.T. Phadol, Meet the Sage: Shri Nisargadatta, p. 5 (1972)". Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 1 January 2008. Timothy Conway, Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj (1897-1981), Life & Teachings of Bombay's Fiery Sage of Liberating Wisdom, enlightened-spirituality.org Detailed Biography Sri Nisagdatta bio at advait.org Archived 3 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine Sri Nisargdatta Quote Archived 17 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine Guru's teachings Sri Nisargdatta bio in innerquest.org It Is Not Real Interview with Ramakant maharaj Shri Ramakant Maharaj Shri Ramakant Maharaj, Information Marathi books David Godman, Remembering Nisargadatta Maharaj Further reading Stephen Howard Wolinsky, I Am That I Am: A Tribute to Sri Nisargadatta. 2000. ISBN 0-9670362-5-9. Peter Brent, Godmen of India. NY: Quadrangle Books, 1972, pp. 136–40. S. Gogate & P.T. Phadol, Meet the Sage: Shri Nisargadatta, Sri Sadguru Nisargadatta Maharaj Amrit Mahotsav Samiti, 1972. Neal Rosner (Swami Paramatmananda), On the Road to Freedom: A Pilgrimage in India, Vol. 1, San Ramon, CA: Mata Amritanandamayi Center, 1987, pp. 212–8. Ramesh Sadashiv Balsekar, Explorations into the Eternal: Forays from the Teaching of Nisargadatta Maharaj . 1989. ISBN 0-89386-023-9. Ramesh Sadashiv Balsekar, Pointers from Nisargadatta Maharaj. 1990 . ISBN 0-89386-033-6. Bertram Salzman, Awaken to the Eternal: Nisargadatta Maharaj: a Journey of Self Discovery. 2006. ISBN 1-878019-28-7. Saumitra Krishnarao Mullarpattan (died September 2012), The Last Days of Nisargadatta Maharaj. India: Yogi Impressions Books, 2007. ISBN 81-88479-26-8. Dasbodh – Spiritual Instruction for the Servant – Saint Shri Samartha Ramdas, Sadguru Publishing, 2010 ISBN 978-0-615-37327-0 DVDs Awaken to the Eternal, Nisargadatta Maharaj: A Journey of Self-Discovery. 1995. Tatvamasi – You Are That (2009), 87 min. Online External links Wikiquote has quotations related to: Nisargadatta Maharaj Nisargadatta websites www.maharajnisargadatta.com – a Resource website www.nisargadatta.co.uk – The essential message/teachings of Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj Lineage Disciples of Nisargadatta Maharaj Works by or about Nisargadatta Maharaj at Internet Archive Background and biography Boucher, Cathy (n.d.), The Lineage of Nine Gurus. The Navnath Sampradaya and Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj Remembering Nisargadatta Maharaj, reflections of David Godman Timothy Conway, Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj (1897-1981), Life & Teachings of Bombay's Fiery Sage of Liberating Wisdom Films DVDs about Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj Videos about Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj Publications by Nisargadatta Maharaj I Am That pdf Aum Om red.svgHinduism portalFlag of India.svgIndia portalP religion world.svgReligion portal Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj, al secolo Maruti Kampli (Bombay, 17 Aprile 1897 – 8 settembre 1981), è stato un maestro spirituale indiano. Indice 1	Biografia 2	Il pensiero 3	Opere tradotte in italiano 4	Note 5	Collegamenti esterni Biografia Il padre di Nisargadatta, Shivrampant, era un assistente domestico ed in seguito agricoltore, con educazione indù. Alla sua morte Maruti - che allora aveva 18 anni - dovette lasciare la famiglia per lavorare a Mumbai come tabaccaio. Nel 1924 sposò Sumatibai da cui ebbe tre figlie ed un figlio. A 33 anni conobbe il guru Sri Siddharameshwar Maharaj che gli insegnò a concentrarsi sul mantra Brahmasmi ("Sono il Supremo"). Poco dopo Sri Siddharameshwar morì, e nel 1936 Maruti raggiunse il moksha (ovvero la liberazione). Dopo un periodo passato sull'Himalaya ritornò presso la sua famiglia a Bombai (ora Mumbai) dove per il resto della sua vita continuò a fare il tabaccaio (vendendo bidi, cioè sigarette di foglie arrotolate) e dispensando i suoi insegnamenti presso la sua casa. Morì di cancro alla gola nel 1981. Il pensiero Nisargadatta è considerato uno dei più rappresentativi esponenti della scuola induista non dualistica del Vedānta rispettato e venerato anche in occidente. Si può condensare il suo pensiero con il Mahavakya ("Gran Verdetto"): Tat tvam asi ("Quello tu sei")[1]. Ma il suo commento in proposito era: "Il Gran Verdetto è verace, ma le tue idee sono false, perché tutte le idee lo sono". Opere tradotte in italiano Io sono quello, trad. di Grazia Marchiano, Milano, Rizzoli, 1981 Alla sorgente dell'essere : dialoghi a Bombay, 1978-1980, trad. di Giovanni Turchi, Milano, Aequilibrium, 1985 Aforismi, trad. di Grazia Marchianò, Roma, Stile regina, 1989 Prima della coscienza : ultime conversazioni con sri Nisargadatta Maharaj, a cura di Jean Dunn, trad. di Sergio Peterlini, Vicenza, Il punto d'incontro, 1991 (Nuova edizione ristampata nel 2016 sempre dallo stesso editore). Essere è amore, trad. di Giovanni Turchi, Milano, Aequilibrium, 1992 Semi di consapevolezza : la saggezza di Nisargadatta Mahārāj, a cura di Jean Dunn, trad. di Sergio Peterlini, Vicenza, Il punto d'incontro, 1991 (Nuova edizione ristampata nel 2017 sempre dallo stesso editore) Nessuno nasce nessuno muore, a cura di Ramesh S. Balsekar, trad. di Sergio Peterlini, Vicenza, Il punto d'incontro, 1992 Io sono quello : conversazioni col maestro, trad. di Sergio Trippodo, Roma, Ubaldini, 2001 L'esperienza del nulla : discorsi sulla realizzazione dell'infinito, a cura di Robert Powell, trad. di Giampaolo Fiorentini, Roma, Ubaldini, 2006 Il nettare dell'immortalità : ultimi insegnamenti, a cura di Robert Powell, trad. di A. Anastasio, Roma, Ubaldini, 2006 La medicina suprema, a cura di Robert Powell, trad. di Giampaolo Fiorentini, Roma, Ubaldini, 2007 Oltre la libertà, Roma, Ubaldini, 2012 Il nulla è tutto : discorsi inediti, a cura di Mohan Gaitonde, trad. di Kabir Gana, Roma, Ubaldini, 2016 Non dualismo, trad. di Giovanni Turchi, Milano, Il saggiatore, 2017 (contiene Alla sorgente dell’Essere e Essere è amore) Note ^ Frase citata nel Chandogya Upanishad 6.8.7, che in sostanza significa che l'anima o la coscienza non sono altro che l'essenza del tutto, la realtà ultima, cioè il Brahman Collegamenti esterni Bibliografia più completa, su gianfrancobertagni.it. Breve Bibliografia 1, su digilander.libero.it. Breve bibliografia 2, su franic.net. (EN) nisargadatta.net. (EN) Sankaracharya.org: "I am That", il classico dell'Advaita di Nisargadatta, su sankaracharya.org. (EN) Nisargadatta Maharaj Website, su maharajnisargadatta.com. Nisargadatta Maharaj (17 de abril de 1897 - 8 de septiembre de 1981) fue un gran maestro espiritual de la corriente Advaita. Su enseñanza es admirada por ser directa, provocativa y radical. Considerado por muchos como un iluminado, su obra más conocida es I am that (Yo soy eso). Biografía Nisargadatta nació el 17 de abril de 1897 en Bombay, con el nombre Maruti Shivrampant Kambli. Sus padres, Shivrampant Kambli y Parvati Bai, eran profundamente religiosos, y seguidores de la Varkari sampradaya, una tradición visnuista. Su padre trabajó como sirviente doméstico en Bombay y después como pequeño granjero en Kandalgaon, un pueblecito de los bosques en el Distrito de Sindhudurg, en Majarastra. Allí Maruti vivió durante su infancia con sus dos hermanos, cuatro hermanas y sus padres. Tras la muerte de su padre, Maruti dejó el pueblo al cumplir los dieciocho años, y se fue a Bombay con su hermano mayor, donde trabajó brevemente como vendedor con el objetivo de mantener a su familia. En poco tiempo abrió una pequeña tienda donde principalmente vendía bidis (cigarrillos finos indios), y rápidamente se hizo con una cadena de ocho locales. En 1924 se casó con Sumati Bai y tuvieron tres hijas y un hijo. Un amigo suyo, Yashwantrao Bagkar, era discípulo de Sri Siddharameshwar Maharaj, a quien llevó a ver un día. Maruti quedó conmovido por la personalidad y la enseñanza de aquel hombre, y poco después se convirtió en su gurú. Siddharameshwar le inició en la Inchegiri Sampradaya, y le dio instrucciones en la práctica del Atma Vichara, como él mismo refirió más tarde: Mi gurú me ordenó a prestar atención a la sensación de 'Yo soy' y a nada más. Yo solamente obedecí. No seguí ninguna práctica de respiración, meditación, o estudio de las escrituras. Pasara lo que pasara, redirigiría mi atención a la sensación de 'Yo soy'. Puede parecer simple, incluso crudo. La única razón por lo que lo hice fue que mi Gurú me lo ordenó. Y dio resultado! Siguiendo las instrucciones de su gurú, utilizó todo su tiempo libre concentrándose en la sensación de 'Yo soy', manteniéndose en ese estado por los años venideros, practicando meditación y recitando bhajans. Mi gurú me dijo: «Vuelve al estado de puro ser, donde el 'Yo soy' aún mantiene su pureza, antes de ser contaminado con 'Yo soy esto' o 'Yo soy eso'. Tu problema es la falsa identificación—abandónala». Mi gurú me dijo: «Crée lo que te digo: eres divino. Toma esto como la verdad absoluta. Tu gozo es divino, y también tu sufrimiento es divino. Todo procede de Dios. Recuerdalo siempre. Eres lo supremo, tu voluntad se ha consumado.» Yo le creí y ponto me di cuenta de la realidad de estas palabras. No condicioné mi mente pensando, «Yo soy Dios, soy maravilloso, estoy más allá de todo». Simplemente seguí sus instrucciones, que consistían en concentrar la mente en el 'Yo soy', y mantenerse en él. Solía sentarme horas y horas, con nada más que el 'Yo soy' en mi mente, y pronto la paz, el gozo y un amor sin fronteras se convirtieron en mi estado normal. Con esto desapareció mi gurú, la vida que seguía, el mundo alrededor mío y yo mismo. Solamente se mantuvo la paz, y un silencio insondable Siddharameshwar murió poco después, el 9 de noviembre de 1936. En 1937, Nisargadatta abandonó a su familia y su negocio de bidis y se fue a los Himalayas; pero a los ocho meses regresó con su familia en Bombay, donde permaneció el resto de su vida, ganándose la vida con una de las tiendas de tabaco. Obra La medicina suprema (1979) La experiencia de la nada Enseñanzas definitivas (El néctar de la inmortalidad) Ser Semillas de consciencia (1979) Yo soy eso (1973) Antes de la consciencia La consciencia y lo absoluto El buscador es lo buscado Enlaces externos MaharajNisargadatta.com https://www.facebook.com/NisargadattaMaharaEspanol/ Nisargadatta Maharaj (mars 1897 - 8 septembre 1981) est un guru indien de la doctrine de l'Advaita Vedānta, ou non-dualité. Son enseignement se fit connaître en Occident, notamment au travers du livre intitulé « I am That »1. Disciple de Siddharameshwar Maharaj, sa lignée spirituelle porte le nom de Navnath Sampradaya, dont l'origine est dite remonter au Rishi Dattatreya. Nisargadatta Maharaj est considéré par nombre d'Occidentaux, intéressés par cette philosophie, comme l'un des grands sages hindous traditionnels de l'époque contemporaine à l'instar d'un Ramana Maharshi lié à cette école du Vedānta. Selon certains des participants de ses réunions, son enseignement se caractérisait par sa manière abrupte et sa simplicité. Sommaire 1	Biographie 2	Enseignement 3	Citations 4	Notes et références 5	Bibliographie 6	Liens externes Biographie Ses parents l’appellent Maruti. Son père, Shivrampant, est domestique à Mumbai puis paysan à Kandalgaon, un petit village dans les bois du district Ratnagiri dans le Maharashtra. À la mort de ce dernier, en 1915, Maruti a 18 ans. Il quitte alors le village pour Mumbai (anciennement Bombay), où il travaille comme commis. Il devient alors petit marchand, et développe un commerce de Bidîes (cigarettes roulées à la main faites à partir des feuilles de Tendu) avant de se marier avec Sumatibai et d'avoir trois filles et un garçon. Il mène cette existence jusqu'à l'âge de 34 ans2. Il rencontre alors Shri Siddharameshwar Maharaj (1888-1936), un maître de l'Advaita Vedānta, qui lui transmet l'initiation (diksha). Maruti rapporte avoir vécu des transes et des extases à partir de ce moment jusqu'à accéder à l'éveil spirituel. Il décide alors d'abandonner sa vie de marchand et sa famille et d'entreprendre un pèlerinage sur les routes de l'Inde2. Découvert dans les années 1970 par Maurice Frydman (en), des enregistrements audios de ses entretiens à son domicile sont réalisés. Frydman publie rapidement l'ouvrage qui le fait connaître : Je Suis. À la suite de la parution de ce livre, des visiteurs du monde entier viennent à Bombay pour le rencontrer. Maharaj eut différents traducteurs dont Mullarpattan et Ramesh S. Balsekar qui traduisaient les questions et les réponses en anglais. À la fin de sa vie, Maharaj développe un cancer de la gorge, ce qui ne l'empêche pas de donner des entretiens jusqu'à la dernière heure3. Enseignement Nisargadatta Maharaj est considéré par ceux ou celles qui l'ont côtoyé comme un guru traditionnel hindou, humble dans sa démarche, ne cherchant pas la notoriété et la richesse, continuant à vivre de son commerce de cigarettes malgré la célébrité internationale4. Dans l'esprit de l'Advaita Vedānta, il enseigne principalement qu'il n'y a rien à chercher, que tout ce que l'être humain recherche est déjà là, qu'il est l'absolu. Quand cela est réalisé, le chercheur ou le questionneur disparaît et devient identique au Brahman. C'est alors la libération, ou mokṣa. Il reste l'un des inspirateurs principaux d'un certain courant de la non-dualité venant de l'Inde exporté en Occident. Citations « La vérité est vous-même. Cessez de vous en éloigner en lui courant après. » « Au lieu de chercher ce que vous n'avez pas, trouvez ce que vous n'avez jamais perdu. » « C'est en vous imaginant séparé que vous avez créé le fossé. Vous n'avez pas à le traverser. Il vous suffit de ne pas le créer. » « Vous existez en tant que pure présence, principe suprême au-delà du mental et du corps. Demeurez en tant que cela. » « Tout est parce que vous êtes. » « Mes mots ne peuvent échouer, ils vont pulvériser les concepts de quiconque les écoute. » « Vous êtes déjà ce que vous cherchez. » « Ce qui vous lie, c'est de vous prendre pour ce que vous n'êtes pas. » « La seule différence entre vous et moi c'est que je me connais tel que je suis. » « Dans le monde des évènements, la question arrive, la réponse arrive, tout arrive, rien ne m'arrive, c'est tout. » Notes et références Ouvrage de Maurice Frydman traduit et publié en de nombreuses langues (en français : « Je suis ») Igor Kononenko et Irena Kononenko, Teachers of Wisdom, Dorrance Publishing, 2007 (présentation en ligne [archive]), p. 293 The Experience Of Nothingnes [archive] s Nisargadatta Maharaj, Robert Powell Mark West, Nisargadatta, Notes, L'Originel, 2007 (présentation en ligne [archive]), p. 7 Bibliographie Je suis (I am that: talks with Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj). Nisargadatta Maharaj, Maurice Frydman (traducteur). Éd. Les Deux Océans, 1982. (ISBN 9782866810023) Graines de conscience (Seeds of consciousness). Nisargadatta Maharaj, Jean Dunn, Marie-Béatrice Jehl (traductrice). Éd. Les Deux Océans, 1983. (ISBN 9782866810054) Sois ! Entretiens avec Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj - (1978-1980). Nisargadatta Maharaj, Paul Vervisch (traducteur). Éd. Les Deux Océans, 1983. (ISBN 9782866810078) Ni ceci ni cela. Nisargadatta Maharaj, Jean Dunn, Paul Vervisch (traducteur). Éd. Les Deux Océans, 1986. (ISBN 9782866810160) À la source de la conscience (Prior to consciousness: talks with Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj. Nisargadatta Maharaj, Jean Dunn, Paul Vervisch (traducteur). Éd. Les Deux Océans, 1991. (ISBN 9782866810351) L'ultime guérison - Dialogues avec un maître réalisé. Nisargadatta maharaj, Jean Bouchart d'Orval (traducteur), Éditions de Mortagne, Montréal, 1997. (ISBN 9782890748613) Conscience et absolu: entretiens ultimes avec sri Nisargadatta maharaj (Consciousness and the Absolute. The final talks of Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj). Nisargadatta Maharaj, Jean Dunn, Jean-Michel Terdjman (traducteur). Éd. Les Deux Océans, 1998. (ISBN 9782866810696) Nisargadatta, Notes. Mark West. Éditions L'Originel, 2007. (ISBN 9782910677718) Auprès de Nisargadatta Maharaj (Je suis seul, car je suis tout), David Godman, traduit de l'anglais et présenté par Alain Porte. Éditions Accarias L'Originel, 2016. (ISBN 9782863162651) Documentaire Éveille-toi à l'Éternité. Nisargadatta Maharaj. Un Voyage à la Découverte de Soi. Inner Production, 1995. Liens externes Notices d'autorité : Fichier d’autorité international virtuelInternational Standard Name IdentifierBibliothèque nationale de France (données)Système universitaire de documentationBibliothèque du CongrèsGemeinsame NormdateiBibliothèque nationale de la DièteBibliothèque nationale d’EspagneBibliothèque royale des Pays-BasBibliothèque nationale de PologneBibliothèque universitaire de PologneBibliothèque nationale de CatalogneBibliothèque nationale tchèqueBibliothèque nationale de GrêceBibliothèque nationale de CoréeWorldCat IdWorldCat Nisargadatta Maharaj, auch Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj genannt (* im März 1897 in Bombay; † 8. September 1981; bürgerlicher Name Maruti Shivrampant Kambli), lebte in Bombay (heute Mumbai). Er wurde von vielen Indern und Besuchern aus der westlichen Welt als erleuchteter und spiritueller Meister verehrt. Von seinen Schülern wurde er für seinen direkten und zwanglosen Unterrichtsstil geschätzt. Er wurde vor allem durch das Buch I Am That bekannt, eine Sammlung von Gesprächen aus Tonbandaufzeichnungen, das in viele Sprachen übersetzt worden ist. Seine Lehre basiert auf dem Advaita Vedanta. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1	Leben 2	Erleuchtung 3	Karma 4	Navanath Sampradaya 5	Werke 6	Literatur 7	Filme 8	Weblinks Leben Sein Vater Shivrampant arbeitete zunächst als Dienstbote in Bombay und später auf einem kleinen Bauernhof in Kandalgaon, einem kleinen Dorf in Maharashtra. Maruti (wie sein gebürtiger Name lautet) war 18 Jahre als sein Vater starb; er verließ das Dorf und begab sich nach Bombay, wo er kurzzeitig als Sekretär arbeitete. Danach wurde er Straßenverkäufer, woraus sich später ein kleines Geschäft entwickelte. Im Jahre 1924 heiratete er seine Frau Sumatibai, mit der er drei Töchter und einen Sohn hatte. Später eröffnete er einen Bidi-Laden in dem er von Hand gerollte, aus Betelblättern gemachte, Zigaretten verkaufte. Erst in seinen mittleren Lebensjahren begann er offenkundig an spirituellen Themen Interesse zu zeigen. Er hatte einen Freund namens Yashwantrao Bagkar, der eines Tages ein Treffen zwischen ihm und dessen Guru, Sri Siddharameshwar Maharaj arrangierte. Nisargadatta wurde von Shri Siddharameshwar Maharaj als Schüler angenommen und wurde in die Meditation und die spirituelle Lehre initiiert. Siddharameshwar Maharaj gehörte der Tradition der Navnath Sampradaya an, der Linie der neun Meister (s. u.) und war ein erleuchteter Meister. Shri Siddharameshwar Maharaj starb drei Jahre später im Jahre 1936. Zu jenem Zeitpunkt verließ Nisargadatta seine Familie und seinen Bidi-Laden und begann, das Leben eines wandernden Asketen zu führen. Es dauerte jedoch nicht lange bis er nach Bombay zurückkehrte, da ihm unterwegs klar geworden war, dass man die Wahrheit auch als ganz normaler Hausvater erkennen und leben könnte. Er nahm sein bürgerliches Leben und seine geschäftliche Tätigkeit als kleiner Unternehmer wieder auf und widmete seine verbliebene Freizeit philosophischen Gesprächen mit interessierten Besuchern, die sich mit der Frage nach der eigenen Identität und Selbsterkenntnis beschäftigten. Über diese Gespräche und ein System der Frage und Antwort entwickelte Shri Nisargadatta Maharaj (auch oft nur Maharaj genannt) eine Methode, den Zuhörer unmittelbar zur Selbsterkenntnis (Erleuchtung) zu führen. Die heute erhaltenen Publikationen beruhen vorwiegend auf Aufzeichnungen dieser Gespräche und auf mündlichen Überlieferungen seiner persönlichen Schüler. Bob Adamson, Stephen Wolinsky und Robert Powell sind Nachfolger seiner Lehre, die auch Bücher über ihn verfasst haben. Ramesh Balsekar empfing bis zu seinem Tode 2009 Interessierte und publizierte selbst zahlreiche Bücher. Ein enger Freund von Shri Nisargadatta Maharaj, der ebenso ein Schüler von Shri Siddharameshwar Maharaj war, Ranjit Maharaj, lehrte in Mumbai, in Europa und den Vereinigten Staaten bis zu seinem Tod im Jahr 2000. Erleuchtung Nisargadatta betont, Erleuchtung bestehe darin, das Anhaften an das Unwirkliche zu überwinden und so der Wirklichkeit ihren Platz zu geben: „Du musst nicht zur Erleuchtung vorstoßen, denn du bist erleuchtet. Sie stößt zu dir vor, wenn du ihr eine Chance gibst. Lass deine Anhaftung an das Unwirkliche entgleiten, und das Wirkliche wird schnell und sanft dessen Platz einnehmen. Hör damit auf, dir einzubilden dies zu sein oder jenes zu tun, und du wirst erkennen, dass du an der Quelle und im Herzen von Allem bist. Auf diese Weise wird die große Liebe über dich kommen, die nicht Wahl oder Bevorzugung darstellt, sondern eine Kraft, die alle Dinge liebenswert und liebenswürdig macht.“ Er bekräftigt jedoch, es gebe dafür keine Bedingungen und keine nötigen Aktivitäten: „Es gibt keine zu erfüllenden Bedingungen. Nichts muss getan werden, nichts muss aufgegeben werden. Schau einfach hin, und bedenke, was auch immer du wahrnimmst, bist nicht du, und gehört nicht dir. Es ist innerhalb des Bewusstseinsfeldes, aber du bist weder das Feld noch dessen Inhalt, ja noch nicht einmal der Beobachter des Feldes (Vyakta). Es ist deine Einbildung du müsstest irgend etwas tun, die dich in die Erwartungshaltung bezüglich deines Bemühens verstrickt - die Motivation, die Sehnsucht, das Scheitern, das Gefühl der Frustration, all dies hält dich zurück. Schau einfach auf das, was sich auch immer ereignet, wissend, dass du über den Dingen stehst.“ Individualität (Vyakti) ist für Nisargadatta eine Projektion des inneren Selbst (Vyakta), das wiederum aus dem Absoluten (Avyakta) entsteht. Das innere Selbst und das Absolute sind eins: „Das äußere Selbst (Vyakti, Individualität) ist nur eine Projektion des inneren Selbst (Vyakta, wörtlich: das Entfaltete), das wiederum ein Ausdruck des Absoluten (Avyakta, wörtlich: das Unentfaltete) ist, das alles und nichts ist … Wenn die Vyakti ihre Nicht-Existenz in Separation vom Vyakta realisiert und der Vyakta die Vyakti als seinen eigenen Ausdruck sieht, dann kommen die Ruhe und der Frieden des absoluten, unentfalteten Zustandes zum Tragen. In Wirklichkeit sind die drei Eines: Vyakta und Avyakta sind untrennbar, während Vyakti die wahrnehmende, fühlende, denkende Aktivität ist, die aus dem Körper entsteht, der aus den fünf Elementen entsteht.“ Man müsse den Zustand der reinen Beobachtung erreichen: „Die Realität existiert, und ist ihrem Wesen nach beobachtendes Bewusstsein. Natürlich ist sie jenseits des Beobachters, aber um in sie hineinzugelangen, muss man zuerst den Zustand der reinen Beobachtung erreichen...Der Beobachter (Vyakta) ist die Reflexion der Realität (Avyakta) in ihrer vollkommenen Makellosigkeit … Die Geisteshaltung der inneren Beobachtung ist außerordentlich machtvoll.“ Es sei nötig, sich zu beobachten, um die Trennung des Selbst vom Nicht-Selbst zu erkennen: „Du musst dich permanent beobachten - vor allem deine Gedanken - in jedem Moment, ohne etwas auszulassen. Die Beobachtung ist wesentlich zur Trennung des Selbst vom nicht-Selbst … Sei dir jenes Zustandes bewusst, der einfach nur Sein ist, ohne dieses oder jenes zu sein.“ Shri Nisargadatta Maharaj scheint Sekten, Kulten und Glaubensrichtungen keine große Bedeutung beizumessen, nicht einmal seiner eigenen. Als Antwort auf einen Fragenden, der dem Kult des Navanath Sampradaya beitreten wollte, erwiderte er: „In der Realität gibt es weder einen Guru noch einen Schüler, weder Theorie noch Praxis, weder Unwissenheit noch Erkenntnis. Es hängt alles davon ab, was du zu sein glaubst. Kenne dich selbst wahrhaftig. Es gibt keinen Ersatz für die Erkenntnis des Selbst.“ Karma In Karma sieht Nisargadatta Maharaj den Ausdruck eines wohlwollenden Gesetzes, eine Universaltendenz hin zum Gleichgewicht, zur Harmonie und zur Einheit. Er betont, all diese Leiden seien selbstgemacht, und bekräftigt, es liege in der Macht des Menschen, dem ein Ende zu setzen. „Gott hilft, indem er den Menschen mit den Konsequenzen seiner Taten konfrontiert, und verlangt, daß das Gleichgewicht wieder hergestellt werde. Karma ist das Gesetz, das für die Rechtschaffenheit arbeitet; es ist die heilende Hand Gottes.“ Karma ist seiner Ansicht nur ein Speicher von nicht ausgelebter Energie, von unerfüllten, nicht verstandenen Wünschen und Ängsten. Dieser Speicher werde ständig durch neue Wünsche und Ängste wieder angefüllt. Dies brauche jedoch nicht für immer so zu sein: „Verstehe die Ursache an der Wurzel deiner Ängste - Entfremdung von dir selbst und von deinen Wünschen - die Sehnsucht nach dem Selbst, und dein Karma wird sich auflösen wie ein Traum. Zwischen Himmel und Erde geht das Leben weiter. Nichts verändert sich, nur physische Körper treten in Erscheinung und vergehen wieder.“ Navanath Sampradaya Der Kult des Nath Sampradaya, später bekannt als der Navanath Sampradaya (die Tradition der neun Meister) gilt als Lehre, die in der Vorzeit verloren gegangen sein soll. Seine Anhänger glauben, der Kult habe seinen Ursprung in den Lehren des mythischen Rishi Dattatreya, der eine Inkarnation der heiligen Trimurti (Dreiheit) von Brahma, Vishnu und Shiva gewesen sein soll. Die spirituellen Errungenschaften jenes Sehers werden auch im Bhagavatapurana, dem Mahabharata und auch in manchen der späteren Upanishaden erwähnt. Die Nath-Gurus vertreten die Ansicht, die gesamte Schöpfung bestehe aus Nada (akustischen Tönen, d. h. dem göttlichen Prinzip) und Bindu (Licht, d. h. dem physikalischen Prinzip), und der allerhöchsten Realität Shivas, dem diese beiden Prinzipien entspringen. Nach deren Ansicht besteht Erlösung für einen Menschen darin, die individuelle Seele mit Shiva zu vereinigen, und mit Hilfe des Laya-Verfahrens die Auflösung des menschlichen Ego, des Gefühls der Ichheit zu bewirken. Die Methoden der Nath-Gurus sind einfach und direkt. Das Singen heiliger Lobgesänge und die Bilderverehrung gehören zwar zu den Traditionen des Kultes, dessen Lehre betont jedoch, die allerhöchste Realität könne nur innerhalb des eigenen spirituellen Herzens realisiert werden. Die Lehre des Nath Sampradaya möchte die Wege des Bhakti (Hingabe), Jnana (Wissen), Karma (Tat) und Dhyana (Versenkung) zu einem Königsweg vereinigen. Es gibt viele Untergruppen des Nath Sampradaya (siehe auch Hinduistische Orden), Nisargadatta gehörte der Kadasiddha Sampradaya an. Werke Ich bin. Tl.1. J. Kamphausen Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-933496-03-9 Ich bin. Tl.2. J. Kamphausen Verlag, 1997, ISBN 3-933496-31-4 Ich bin. Tl.3. J. Kamphausen Verlag, 2003, ISBN 3-933496-68-3 Die Ultimative Medizin Noumenon Verlag, 2009, ISBN 978-3-941973-00-8 Der Nektar Der Unsterblichkeit Noumenon Verlag, 2011, ISBN 978-3-941973-11-4 Bevor Ich War, Bin Ich Noumenon Verlag, 2011, ISBN 978-3-941973-03-9 Literatur Stephen Wolinsky: Ich bin dieses Eine: Begegnungen mit Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj. VAK Verlag, Kirchzarten bei Freiburg 2002, ISBN 3-932098-90-0 Ramesh S. Balsekar: Pointers – Wegweisende Gespräche mit Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj. J. Kamphausen Verlag, 2002, ISBN 3-933496-44-6 Filme Stephen H. Wolinsky: I Am That I Am. Experience the teachings of Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj. DVD – 150 Min. Awaken to the Eternal. Nisargadatta Maharaj: A Journey of Self Discovery. Inner Directions Foundation, VHS NTSC – 57 Min. Weblinks Literatur von und über Nisargadatta Maharaj im Katalog der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek Nisargadatta web site (englisch) Reference page on Nisargadatta from the Realization.org with a Biography (englisch) Nisargadatta Maharaj Chart (englisch) Featuring video footage of Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj (englisch) Ich bin ungeboren. (Memento vom 9. Juli 2015 auf WebCite) (PDF; 330 kB; 75 Seiten) freies Buch mit 24 Dialogen (deutsch) I Am Unborn. (PDF; 415 kB; 130 Seiten) freies Buch mit 56 Dialogen (englisch) Life and Teachings (englisch) Nisargadatta Maharaj, Gallery (englisch) Remembering Nisargadatta Maharaj (englisch) Maharaj Nisargadatta Resources - Biographies, Talks, Videos, Quotes.. (englisch) How to locate Nisargadatta Maharaj’s home (englisch) نسرغاداتا مهراج (17 أبريل 1897- 8 سبتمبر 1981) وُلد باسم ماروتي شيفرامبانت كامبالي هو غورو هندي ينتمي لمذهب أدفايتا. انتشرت تعاليمه بصورة ملحوظة عبر كتابه "أنا الذات" الذي جلب له شهرة عالمية وأتباع خصوصا من أمريكا الشمالية وأوروبا، حيث صدر الكتاب عام 1973 وكان عبارة عن ترجمة إنكليزية لمحاوراته مع موريس فريدمان باللغة المراثية. كان تلميذ سيدهارامشوار مهراج، وحملت سلالته الروحية اسم نافناث سمبرادايا. يُعتبر نسرغاداتا مهراج- حسب العديد من الغربيين المهتمين بهذه الفلسفة- أحد أكبر الحكماء الهنود المعاصرين لرامانا مهارشي الذين اتبعوا طريق "تقصي الذات". وحسب بعض الحاضرين لجلساته فإن تعالميه قد اتسمت بالحدّة والبساطة. السيرة حياته المبكرة وُلد نسارغداتا عند شروق الشمس في 17 أبريل 1897، كان يومًا مكتمل القمر في شهر شايترا حسب التقويم الهندوسي لوالدين هما شيفرامبانت كامبلي و بارفاتيباي في مدينة بومباي بالهند. صادف اليوم كذلك "هانومان جايانتي"، أي ذكرى ميلاد الإله هانومان، حيث سُميَّ هذا المولود بـ "ماروتي" تيمنا بالإله هانومان نفسه. كان والداه تابعان لسمبرادايا (حركة دينية) اسمها فاركاري، وهو تقليد بهاكتي فايشنافي مساواتي يعبد الإله فيثوبا. عمل والده، شيفرامبانت، كخادم منزلي في مدينة مومباي وأصبح لاحقا مزارعا بسيطا في كاندالغوان. ترعرع ماروتي شيفرامبانت كامبالي في كاندالغوان، وهي قرية صغيرة في منطقة راتنجاري في ولاية ماهاراشترا، حيث كبر وسط عائلته المكونة من 6 أشقاء، أخان و أربع أخوات، ووالدان متدينان بعمق. وفي عام 1915، بعد أن مات والده، انتقل إلى بومباي ليعيل عائلته حيث لحق بأخيه الأكبر. في البداية عمل كموظف بسيط في مكتب لكنه سرعان ما فتح متجر بضائع صغير، يبيع البيديز بصورة أساسية، وهي سجائر أوراق نبات ملفوفة، وبعد فترة كان يملك مجموعة من ثمانية محلات بيع بالتجزئة. في عام 1924 تزوج سوماتيباي وأنجبا ثلاثة بنات وولد. روابط خارجية نسرغاداتا مهراج على موقع المكتبة المفتوحة (الإنجليزية) مراجع معرف الشبكات الاجتماعية وسياق الأرشيف: https://snaccooperative.org/ark:/99166/w6sn1j66 — باسم: Nisargadatta Maharaj — تاريخ الاطلاع: 9 أكتوبر 2017 Identifiants et Référentiels — تاريخ الاطلاع: 11 مايو 2020 — الناشر: الوكالة الفهرسة للتعليم العالي Biography of Nisargadatta Maharaj ~ Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj نسخة محفوظة 20 يونيو 2017 على موقع واي باك مشين. ضبط استنادي WorldCatBNE: XX887575BNF: cb119177418 (data)CANTIC: a12080664GND: 118876740ISNI: 0000 0001 0882 8476LCCN: n82039969NDL: 01054511NKC: jn19990210462NLG: 200280NLK: KAC200906830NLP: A11837512NTA: 069036918SNAC: w6sn1j66SUDOC: 027048519VIAF: 28412441 Шри Нисаргадатта Махарадж (17 апреля 1897 — 8 сентября 1981) — индийский гуру, учитель адвайты (недвойственности), принадлежал к линии преемственности Инчегири-сампрадая (англ.)русск.. Будучи одним из представителей школы метафизики недвойственности 20-го века, Шри Нисаргадатта, с его непосредственным и минималистичным объяснением недвойственности, считается самым известным учителем адвайты, жившим после Рамана Махарши[1]. В 1973 году вышла в свет его самая известная и широко переводимая книга, «Я есть То», перевод бесед Нисаргадатта на английский язык, сделанный Свами Бхаратанандой, принёс ему мировое признание и последователей[2]. Нисаргадатта Махарадж считал Свами Бхаратананду «освящённым душой» и находился при его постели в последние минуты жизни[3]. Одни из самых известных учеников Нисаргадатты — Рамеш Балсекар, психолог Стивен Волински (основатель квантовой психологии). Содержание 1	Биография 1.1	Ранняя жизнь 1.2	Пробуждение 1.3	Поздние годы 2	Книги Шри Нисаргадатты Махараджа 3	Книги о Шри Нисаргадатте Махарадже 4	Примечания 5	Ссылки Биография Ранняя жизнь Шри Нисаргадатта родился 17 апреля 1897 года, на рассвете, во время полнолуния в месяц чайтра, в семье набожных индусов Шиврампанта Кэмбли и Парватибэй, в Бомбее.[4] Этот день был также днём рождения Господа Ханумана, поэтому мальчик был назван «Марути», этим именем часто называют Ханумана.[5][6] Марути Шиврампант Кэмбли был воспитан в Кандалгаоне, маленькой деревне в округе Ратнагири, штата Махараштра, где он вырос в окружении семьи из двух братьев, четырёх сестёр и глубоко религиозных родителей.[7] Его отец, Шиврампант, работал в качестве домашнего слуги в Мумбаи, а затем стал мелким фермером в Кандалгаоне. В 1915 году, после смерти отца, чтобы поддерживать свою семью, он переехал в Бомбей. Первоначально он работал младшим клерком в офисе, но скоро открыл небольшую лавку, где продавал в основном биди (самокрутки из листьев), а вскоре владел уже восемью галантерейными магазинами.[8] Пробуждение В 1933 году он был представлен другом своему будущему гуру, Шри Сиддхарамешвару Махарадже, главе Инчегири, одного из направлений школы Навнатх Сампрадайя. Гуру сказал ему: «Ты не тот, кем себе кажешься…».[9] Затем он дал Нисаргадатте простые инструкции, которым тот следовал дословно, как он сам рассказывал позже: «Мой Гуру сказал мне уделять внимание только чувству „я есть“ и ничему другому. Я просто повиновался. Я не практиковал никакой специальный метод дыхания, или медитации, или изучения священных текстов. Что бы ни происходило, я отводил от этого своё внимание и оставался с чувством „я есть“. Это может показаться слишком простым, даже грубым. Единственная причина, по которой я делал это, — так мне говорил мой Гуру. И это сработало!».[10] Следуя указаниям своего гуру Нисаргадатта концентрировался на чувстве «я есть» и использовал все своё свободное время для безмолвного осознания себя, пребывая в этом состоянии все ближайшие годы, практикуя медитацию и преданное пение бхаджанов.[11] После периода ученичества, который длился почти два с половиной года, Шри Сиддхарамешвара Махарадж умер 9 ноября 1936 года[12], выполнив к тому времени свою задачу. Марути достиг самосознания. Вскоре он принял новое имя, «Нисаргадатта», означающее «естественно данное» («нис-арга» буквально означает «без частей», предполагая появление нефрагментированного, целостного Сознания).[13] Он также был назначен духовным руководителем Инчегири Навнатх Сампрадаи, традиции «Девяти мастеров», эту должность он занимал всю свою жизнь.[14] В 1937 году он покинул Мумбаи и путешествовал по всей Индии.[15] Вернулся к своей семье в Мумбаи в 1938 году.[16] Именно там он провел остаток своей жизни. Поздние годы В период 1942—1948 он перенёс две личные потери, в начале смерть своей жены, Саматибаи, потом смерть своей дочери. Он начал принимать учеников в 1951 году, только после личного откровения от своего гуру, Шри Сиддхарамешвара Махараджа.[13] После того как он ушёл из своего магазина в 1966 году, Шри Нисаргадатта Махарадж продолжал принимать и наставлять посетителей в своём доме, давая дискурсы два раза в день до самой своей смерти 8 сентября 1981, в возрасте 84 лет, от рака горла.[17] Книги Шри Нисаргадатты Махараджа Нисаргадатта Махарадж. Я есть То. — М.: Издательство К. Кравчука., 2008. — 692 с. — ISBN 5-901518-19-5. Нисаргадатта Махарадж. Я есть То. — М.: Ганга, 2011. — 704 с. — ISBN 978-5-98882-140-3. Книги о Шри Нисаргадатте Махарадже На иностранных языках: Balsekar, Ramesh S. Explorations into the Eternal: Forays from the Teaching of Nisargadatta Maharaj . 1989. ISBN 0-89386-023-9. Balsekar, Ramesh S. Balsekar, Pointers from Nisargadatta Maharaj. 1990 . ISBN 0-89386-033-6. Gogate S. & Phadol P.T., Meet the Sage: Shri Nisargadatta, Sri Sadguru Nisargadatta Maharaj Amrit Mahotsav Samiti, 1972. Mullarpattan S.K. The Last Days of Nisargadatta Maharaj. India: Yogi Impressions Books, 2007. ISBN 81-88479-26-8. Salzman, Bertram. Awaken to the Eternal: Nisargadatta Maharaj: a Journey of Self Discovery. 2006. ISBN 1-878019-28-7. Wolinsky, Stephen H. I Am That I Am: A Tribute to Sri Nisargadatta... — 2000. — ISBN 0-9670362-5-9. На русском языке: Балсекар, Рамеш. Указатели на пути к Нисаргадатте Махараджу.. — М.: Ганга, 2011 (переиздание). — 320 с. — ISBN 978-5-98882-079-6. Волински, Стивен. Я есть то, что я есть. Подношение Шри Нисаргадатте Махараджу.. — М.: Ганга, 2010. — 288 с. — ISBN 978-5-98882-070-3. Примечания Intro to I am That Nisargdatta profile at realization.org Sri Nisargadatta Biography S. Gogate & P.T. Phadol, Meet the Sage: Shri Nisargadatta (1972) Архивная копия от 3 марта 2009 на Wayback Machine  (недоступная ссылка с 11-05-2013 [2856 дней]) I Am That, pp. 6, Who is Nisargadatta Maharaj. S. Gogate & P.T. Phadol, Meet the Sage: Shri Nisargadatta, p. 5 (1972) Архивная копия от 3 марта 2009 на Wayback Machine  (недоступная ссылка с 11-05-2013 [2856 дней]) Detailed Biography Sri Nisagdatta bio at advait.org Архивировано 3 января 2008 года. Sri Nisargdatta Quote Архивировано 17 января 2008 года. I Am That, Chapter 75, p. 375. Guru’s teachings Prior to Consciousness, pp. 1-2, April 4, 1980 Nisargadatta Maharaj Biography enlightened-spirituality.org I Am That, Page 271 Part II, chapter 97 Sri Nisargdatta bio in innerquest.org I Am That p.xxviii It Is Not Real 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전. 둘러보기로 가기검색하러 가기 니사르가닷따 마하라지 Nisargadatta Maharaj.jpg 범어	निसारगट्टा महाराज 숭배 정보 종파	아드바이타 베단타 스승	싯다라메쉬와르 마하라지 신상 정보 탄생	1897년 4월 17일 탄생지	영국령 인도 봄베이 관구 봄베이 속명	마루티 쉬브람판트 캄블리 사망	1981년 09월 08일 (84세) 사망지	인도 뭄바이 인용문 '내가 있음' 을 인지하여 스스로를 엄격하게 확립하여라. 이것이 모든 헌신의 시작이며 끝이다. 니사르가닷따 마하라지[1](1897.4.17 – 1981.10.8)는 나브나트 삼프라다야와 링가야트 시바파의 스승들의 계통인 인체게리 삼프라다야에 속한 비이원론의 인도 구루이다. 모리스 프리드먼이 그의 마라티에서의 설파를 영어로 번역하여 1973년에 출간한 아이 앰 댓은 전 세계적으로, 특히 북미와 유럽에서 유명세와 추종자를 만들어냈다.[2] 목차 1	생애 1.1	생애 초기 1.2	사드하나 1.3	후년 2	가르침 2.1	가르침의 방식 2.2	진정한 본성에 대한 인식 2.3	자기탐구 2.4	헌신과 만트라의 반복 2.5	경전 3	계통 3.1	제자들 3.2	계승자들 4	참고 문서 5	메모 6	각주 7	출처 7.1	웹 출처 8	참고 문헌 9	영상 10	외부 링크 생애 생애 초기 니사르가닷따는 1897년 4월 17일에 봄베이에서 쉬브람판트 캄블리와 파르바티바이 사이에서 태어났다.[web 1] 그가 태어난 날은 하누만 탄신일과 겹쳤고, 그래서 소년은 아버지에 이어 '마루티'라는 이름을 받았다.[3][web 2][note 1] 그의 부모님은 비토바를 예배하는 평등주의 비슈누교적 박티 전통인 바르카리 삼프라다야의 추종자였다.[web 3] 그의 아버지 쉬브람판트는 뭄바이에서 가정집의 하인으로 일했고 후에 칸달가온에서 소농이 되었다. 마루티 쉬브람판트 캄블리는 마하라슈트라 라트나기리의 작은 마을 칸달가온에서 두 명의 형제, 네 명의 자매, 종교적 수양이 깊은 부모와 함께 자라났다.[web 4] 그는 아버지가 죽은 후 1915년에 집에 있는 가족들을 부양하기 위해 형을 따라 봄베이로 떠났다. 그는 처음에는 사무실의 하급 사원으로 일했지만 얼마 지나지 않아 주로 비디 – 이파리를 둘둘 만 인도식 담배를 파는 작은 상품점을 열었고, 곧 여덟 개의 소매점을 소유하게 된다.[web 5] 그는 1924년에 수마티바이와 결혼했고 세 명의 남매를 두었다. 사드하나 1933년에 그의 친구 야슈완트라오 박카르가 그의 스승이 될 나브나트 삼프라다야의 인체지리 분파의 책임자 싯다라메쉬와르 마하라지를 소개했다. 그의 스승은 그에게 말했다. "너는 네가 네 자신이라고 여기는 것이 아니다..."[web 6] 싯다라메쉬와르는 그를 인체지리 삼프라다야에 입문시켰고, 그에게 명상에 대한 교육과 만트라를 선사했으며, 그는 즉시 이를 암송하기 시작했다.[web 3] 싯다라메쉬와르는 니사르가닷따에게 그가 문자 그대로 따른 자아성찰에 대한 조언을 선사했고, 니사르가닷따는 훗날 다음과 같이 말했다: 내 스승은 나에게 '내가 있음'을 느끼도록 노력하며에 다른 것에는 주의를 두지 말 것을 요구하였다. 나는 그냥 순종했다. 나는 어떠한 호흡, 명상, 경전 공부에 대한 과정도 밟지 않았다. 나는 무슨 일이 일어나든 그것에 대해 관심을 끊고 '내가 있음'에 대한 느낌을 유지하였다. 이것은 너무 간단하거나 심지어 조잡한 것처럼 보일 수 있다. 내가 이것을 행한 유일한 이유는 내 스승이 하라고 했기 때문이다. 하지만 이것은 효과가 있었다![4] "내가 있음"을 느끼는 데 집중하라는 스승의 조언을 따라, 그는 다년 간 모든 짜투리 시간을 정적 속에서 자신을 바라보는 일에 쏟았고, 명상을 수련하고 종교적인 바쟌을 노래하였다:[web 7] 내 구루가 나에게 말했다: "... '나는' 이 '나는 이것이다' 또는 '나는 저것이다' 로 오염되기 전의 순수함에 머물러 있는 순수한 존재의 상태로 돌아가라. 너의 고통은 잘못된 자기동일시에서 비롯된다 - 그것들을 전부 버려라." 내 구루는 내게 말했다. "나를 믿어라. 내가 말하건대, 너는 신성 그 자체다. 그것을 절대적인 진실로서 받아들여라. 너의 즐거움, 너의 고통 또한 신성이다. 모든 것은 신으로부터 온다. 그것을 언제나 기억해라. 너는 신이고, 너의 의지는 스스로 이루어진다." 나는 그를 믿었고 곧 얼마나 그것이 진실된지, 그의 단어가 얼마나 정확한지 깨달았다. 나는 "나는 신이다, 나는 불가사의하다, 나는 초월자이다." 라고 생각하여 마음을 다스리지 않았다. 나는 단순히 순수한 존재에 대한 마음, "내가 있음" 에 집중하여 그 상태에 머물러있으라는 그의 조언을 따랐다. 나는 마음 속에 "내가 있음" 이외엔 없는 상태로 수 시간을 앉아있곤 했으며, 곧 평화와 기쁨, 모든 것을 포용하는 깊은 사랑이 나의 기본적인 상태가 되었다. 그 속에서 내 자신, 내 구루, 내가 살아가는 삶, 내 주변의 세계—모든 것이 사라졌다. 평화와 헤아릴 수 없는 정적만이 남아있었다. (아이 앰 댓, Dialogue 51, 1971. 4. 16).[web 3] 2년 반에 가까운 가르침 후에, 싯다라메쉬와르 마하라지는 1936년 11월 9일에 죽었다.[5][web 3] 마하라지는 1937년에 뭄바이를 떠나 인도 전역을 여행했다.[web 8] 그는 여덟 달 후에 뭄바이의 가족에게로 돌아갔다.[6] 여행을 마치면서 그의 마음의 상태가 바뀌었고, "더 이상 아무것도 잘못된 게 없다"는 것을 깨달았다.[web 3] 그는 나머지 일생 동안 뭄바이에서 생계를 위해 상점 하나를 운영하였다.[web 3] 후년 그는 1942년부터 1948년 사이에 아내 수마티바이의 죽음과 뒤이은 딸의 죽음으로 고통받았다. 그는 그의 스승 싯다라메쉬와르 마하라지로부터 개인적인 계시를 받은 후에, 1951년에 가르침을 설파하기 시작하였다.[web 3] 니사르가닷따 마하라지는 1966년에 가게를 그만둔 후, 그의 집에서 방문객을 맞이하고 가르치기를 지속하였으며, 하루에 두 번 강연하였고, 이는 그가 1981년 10월 8일에 인후암으로 죽을 때까지 계속되었다.[web 9] 가르침 가르침의 방식 니사르가닷따는 뭄바이 케트와디에 위치한 그의 초라한 연립주택에, 그가 제자와 방문객들을 맞이하도록 만들어진 중이층의 방에서 강연을 하고 질문에 답한다. 이 방은 매일의 찬송, 바쟌, 명상 시간, 대화에도 사용된다.[web 3] 캐시 바우처는 인차지리 삼프라다야는 19세기 초반에 유파가 세워질 무렵부터 만트라 명상을 강조했지만, 스리 싯다라메쉬와르에 이르러 자기탐구를 강조하는 형태로 바뀌었다고 적었다.[7] 그럼에도 불구하고, 스리 니사르가닷따 마하라지는 [...] 만트라는 단순한 소리가 아니며 삶의 어떤 상황에서도 울려퍼질 수 있는 절대적인 자체라는 근본적인 관점 하에서, 여전히 만트라 입문을 지도했다.[7] 바우처는 니사르가닷따가 그의 서양 제자들에게 문답을 통해 맞춤형 교육 방식을 적용했다고 적었다.[7] 마하라지의 말의 상당수가 녹음되었고, 아이 앰 댓 등의 몇 권의 책의 기반을 형성했다.[8] 진정한 본성에 대한 인식 힌디어로 쓰여진 니사르가닷따의 "아이 앰 댓" 티모시 콘웨이에 따르면 니사르가닷따의 단 하나의 목적은 다음과 같다. ...탄생과 소멸이 없으며, 무한하며 영원한 절대적인 인식 파라브라만으로서의 우리의 정체성과, 보편적인 인식을 발휘하는 그 역할이 있다. 마하라지가 보기엔, 우리의 단 하나의 "문제", 그 상상이 불러일으킨 문제는 정체성에 대한 착각이다. 우리는 자신의 개별성을 전제하지만, 원래 근본적으로, 우리는 개인이 아니며, 본질적으로 언제나 단 하나의 절대성이다.[web 3] 니사르가닷따는 다음과 같이 설명한다: 생명의 힘[프라나]과 마음은 [그들만의 목적]을 행할 따름이지만, 마음은 너에게 이것이 '너'라는 것을 믿도록 유혹할 것이다. 그러므로 너는 시공을 초월한 목격자라는 것을 언제나 이해하여야 한다. 그리고 마음이 설령 네가 활동하는 존재라고 말해줄지라도, 마음을 믿지 마라. [...] 기능하는 기관[마음, 몸]이 너의 원래의 본질에 다다를 수 있지만, 너는 그 기관이 아니다.[9] 자기탐구 콘웨이는 절대성의 인식은 다음과 같이 얻어질 수 있다고 말한다. ... 극도로 명상적인 자아탐구 (아트마-비카라) 와 최상의 지혜-지식 (비즈냐나 또는 즈냐나) 을 거친 "나와 내 세계"라는 환상에서의 급진적인 비동일시. "나는 아트마-요가, 즉 '자아-지식'만을 알며, 그 이외는 모른다.... 나의 수행은 아트마-요가이며, 이는 자신에 대한 지각을 의미한다."[web 3] 헌신과 만트라의 반복 니사르가닷따는 비이원적 진실에 대해 단지 지적인 관점만으로 접근하는 것에 비판적이었다.[web 3] 그는 그의 스승을 향해 헌신적인 강한 열정을 보냈고,[web 3] 그가 믿은 진리의 길로서 몇몇 방문자들에게 헌신의 길로서 박티 요가를 강조했고, 즈냐나 요가는 진리에 이르는 유일한 방편이 아니라고 말했다. 니사르가닷따는 구루와 신의 사랑,[10][web 3] 만트라를 반복하고 종교적인 노래 바쟌을 부르는 행위 또한 강조했다.[web 3][note 2] 경전 티모시 콘웨이에 따르면, 니사르가닷따는 자주 마라티 경전을 읽었다: 나트 성인 갸네쉬와르의 암리타누브하바와 냐네쉬와리 (기타 해설), 바카리 성인들, 그 중에서도 주로 에크나트의 바가바타(바가바타 푸라나의 개작 에크나티 바그와트), 사마르스 람다스의 다스보드, 투카람의 시 뿐만 아니라 요가 바시쉬타, 아디 샹카라의 논문들, 어떤 주요한 우파니샤드도 읽었다.[web 3] 계통 이 부분의 본문은 인체게리 삼프라다야입니다. 제자들 그의 제자 중 제일 유명한 사람들은 모리스 프리드먼, 세일러 밥 아담슨, 스테판 하워드 올린스키(born January 31, 1950), 진 던, 알렉산더 스미트 (스리 파라브라마다따 마하라지) (1948-1998), 다우웨 티머스마 (1945. 1. 7 - 2013. 1. 3), 로버트 파월, 티모시 콘웨이, 웨인 다이어[11], 라메쉬 발세카르 (1917-2009) 가 있다. 덜 알려진 제자는 1962년에 니사르가닷따에게 남 만트라를 받고 이후 19년 동안 스승과 함께하였으며, 이 계통으로의 입문을 제공하는 "인도인 중 유일한 스리 니사르가닷따 마하라지의 직계 제자" 라고 주장한[web 10] 스리 라마칸트 마하라지 (1941. 7. 8 출생) 가 있다.[web 11][web 12] 마라티어로 니사르가닷따에 대한 연작[web 13]을 출판하고 Master of Self Realization을 다시 출판한 사친 크쉬르사가르는 2011년 10월에 꿈에서 스리 니사르가닷따 마하라지로부터 남 만트라를 받았다고 말했다. 계승자들 데이비드 갓맨은 삼프라다야의 구루의 계승에 대한 니사르가닷따의 설명에 대해 다음과 같이 이야기한다: 나는 매일 여기에 앉아 너의 질문에 답하지만, 이것은 우리 유파의 스승들이 가르치는 방식이 아니다. 수백 년 전에는 어떠한 질문과 대답도 없었다. 우리들은 재가자 유파이며, 이는 모두가 밖에 나가 생계를 유지해야 한다는 것을 의미한다. 많은 수의 제자들이 구루와 만나 질문하는 모임 같은 건 없었다. 여행은 어려웠다. 버스나 기차, 비행기는 없었다. 예전에 구루는 제자들이 집에 머무르며 가족을 돌보는 동안 도보로 여행했다. 구루는 제자들을 만나기 위해 이 마을 저 마을 걸어다녔다. 삼프라다야에 들어갈 준비가 된 사람을 만났다는 생각이 들면, 그는 그 사람을 계승의 만트라로 입문시킨다. 이것이 유일한 가르침이다. 제자는 만트라를 반복하고 구루는 진척을 확인하기 위해 주기적으로 마을을 방문한다. 구루가 자신이 곧 죽을 것이라는 것을 알면, 그는 집에 머무르는 헌신적인 제자들 중 한 명을 다음 구루로 진행하고, 새로운 구루는 가르침의 의무를 떠안게 된다: 이 마을 저 마을을 떠돌아다니며, 새로운 제자를 입문시키고 기존의 제자들의 진전을 감독한다.[web 14] 데이비드 갓맨에 따르면, 싯다라메쉬와르는 니사르가닷따가 "싯다라메쉬와르가 죽었을 때 스스로를 깨닫지 못했기 때문에" 계승자 지명을 허락하지 않았다.[web 14] 니사르가닷따는 싯다라메쉬와르에게서 내적인 계시를 받은 이후 1951년에 다른 사람들을 가르치기 시작하였다.[web 3] 니사르가닷따는 스스로를 다음과 같이 설명하였다: 나브나트 삼프라다야는 가르치고 실천하는 전통일 뿐이다. 이는 의식의 수준을 나타내지 않는다. 네가 나브나트 삼프라다야의 스승을 너의 구루로서 받아들인다면, 너는 그의 삼프라다야에 참여한 것이다. 보통 너는 그의 은총의 표시를 받는다 - 마주침, 접촉, 단어, 때로 생생한 꿈이나 강렬한 기억으로서.[12] 참고 문서 모리스 프리드먼 라마나 마하르시 라메쉬 발세카 사마스 람다스 로버트 애덤스 메모 Samarth Ramdas (17th century), the author of the Dasbodh, an important scripture in the Inchegeri Sampradaya, was a devotee of Hanuman. Nisargadatta himself said to a visitor: I may talk Non-duality to some of the people who come here. That is not for you and you should not pay any attention to what I am telling others. The book of my conversations [I Am That] should not be taken as the last word on my teachings. I had given some answers to questions of certain individuals. Those answers were intended for those people and not for all. Instruction can be on an individual basis only. The same medicine cannot be prescribed for all. Nowadays people are full of intellectual conceit. They have no faith in the ancient traditional practices leading up to Self-Knowledge. They want everything served to them on a platter. The path of Knowledge makes sense to them and because of that they may want to practice it. They will then find that it requires more concentration than they can muster and, slowly becoming humble, they will finally take up easier practices like repetition of a mantra or worship of a form. Slowly the belief in a Power greater than themselves will dawn on them and a taste for devotion will sprout in their heart. Then only will it be possible for them to attain purity of mind and concentration.[web 3] 각주 The American pronunciation of his first name is /ˌnɪsərɡəˈdɑːtə/ NISS-ər-gə-DAH-tə or /nɪˌsɑːrɡəˈdɑːtə/ nih-SAR-gə-DAH-tə, whereas his last name is pronounced /ˌmɑːhəˈrɑːdʒ/ MAH-hə-RAHJ or /ˌmɑːhəˈrɑːʒ/ MAH-hə-RAHZH Jones & Ryan 2006, 315쪽. I Am That, pp. 6, Who is Nisargadatta Maharaj. 아이 앰 댓, 75장, 375 페이지. Prior to Consciousness, pp. 1–2, 4 April 1980. I Am That p.xxviii Boucher year unknown. Nisargadatta 1973. The Ultimate Medicine, (pp.54 – 70) Rosner 1987, 212–218쪽. Dyer 2007, 39쪽. Nisargadatta 1973, chapter 97쪽. 출처 인쇄된 출처 Boucher, Cathy (n.d.), 《The Lineage of Nine Gurus. The Navnath Sampradaya and Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj》 Dyer, Wayne (2007), 《Change Your Thoughts – Change Your Life》, Hay House, Inc, ISBN 978-1-4019-2052-4 Frydman, Maurice (1987), 《Navanath Sampradaya. In: I Am That. Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj》, Bombay: Chetana Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2006), 《Encyclopedia of Hinduism》, Infobase Publishing, ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5 Nisargadatta (1973), 《I Am That》 (PDF), 2018년 1월 27일에 원본 문서 (PDF)에서 보존된 문서, 2018년 6월 22일에 확인함 Rosner, Neal (Swami Paramatmananda) (1987), 《On the Road to Freedom: A Pilgrimage in India, Vol. 1》, San Ramon, CA: Mata Amritanandamayi Center Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj - Maurice Frydman - I am That - Tamil Translation - Year 2016 - title Naan Brammam - place =Chennai, India publisher =Kannadhasan Pathippagam ISBN 978-81-8402-782-2 웹 출처 “Biography of Nisargadatta Maharaj”. 2017년 6월 20일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2018년 6월 22일에 확인함. “S. Gogate & P.T. Phadol, Meet the Sage: Shri Nisargadatta, p. 5 (1972)”. 2009년 3월 3일에 원본 문서에서 보존된 문서. 2018년 6월 22일에 확인함. Timothy Conway, Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj (1897-1981), Life & Teachings of Bombay's Fiery Sage of Liberating Wisdom, enlightened-spirituality.org Detailed Biography Sri Nisagdatta bio at advait.org Archived 3 January 2008 - 웨이백 머신. Sri Nisargdatta Quote Archived 17 January 2008 - 웨이백 머신. Guru's teachings Sri Nisargdatta bio in innerquest.org It Is Not Real Shri Ramakant Maharaj, Information Interview with Ramakant maharaj Shri Ramakant Maharaj Marathi books David Godman, Remembering Nisargadatta Maharaj 참고 문헌 Stephen Howard Wolinsky, I Am That I Am: A Tribute to Sri Nisargadatta. 2000. ISBN 0-9670362-5-9. Peter Brent, Godmen of India. NY: Quadrangle Books, 1972, pp. 136–40. S. Gogate & P.T. Phadol, Meet the Sage: Shri Nisargadatta, Sri Sadguru Nisargadatta Maharaj Amrit Mahotsav Samiti, 1972. Neal Rosner (Swami Paramatmananda), On the Road to Freedom: A Pilgrimage in India, Vol. 1, San Ramon, CA: Mata Amritanandamayi Center, 1987, pp. 212–8. Ramesh Sadashiv Balsekar, Explorations into the Eternal: Forays from the Teaching of Nisargadatta Maharaj . 1989. ISBN 0-89386-023-9. Ramesh Sadashiv Balsekar, Pointers from Nisargadatta Maharaj. 1990 . ISBN 0-89386-033-6. Bertram Salzman, Awaken to the Eternal: Nisargadatta Maharaj: a Journey of Self Discovery. 2006. ISBN 1-878019-28-7. Saumitra Krishnarao Mullarpattan (died September 2012), The Last Days of Nisargadatta Maharaj. India: Yogi Impressions Books, 2007. ISBN 81-88479-26-8. Dasbodh – Spiritual Instruction for the Servant – Saint Shri Samartha Ramdas, Sadguru Publishing, 2010 ISBN 978-0-615-37327-0 영상 Awaken to the Eternal, Nisargadatta Maharaj: A Journey of Self-Discovery. 1995. Tatvamasi – You Are That (2009), 87 min. Online 외부 링크 위키인용집에 이 문서와 관련된 문서가 있습니다. 니사르가닷따 마하라지 니사르가닷따 웹사이트 www.maharajnisargadatta.com – a Resource website www.nisargadatta.co.uk – The essential message/teachings of Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj 계보 Disciples of Nisargadatta Maharaj 배경과 전기 Boucher, Cathy (n.d.), 《The Lineage of Nine Gurus. The Navnath Sampradaya and Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj》 Remembering Nisargadatta Maharaj, reflections of David Godman Timothy Conway, Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj (1897-1981), Life & Teachings of Bombay's Fiery Sage of Liberating Wisdom 영상 DVDs about Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj Videos about Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj 니사르가닷따 마하라지의 출판물 Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj DEDICATIONS TO MAHARAJ  AND SALUTATIONS TO SADGURU THAT THOU ART "Tat Tvam Asi" "satguru parabrahman" There is no other Listen with the heart: "Just a single quality gives birth to the  glow of the  expanded  universe;  in the absence of that one quality, all is pure silence.  When this one single quality is known and befriended, the heart mingles  with  the  Heart;  there is that  supreme  sense of  inalienable  mutuality of  oneness of quality in all,  and all as belonging to the  One.  The supreme unity is realized; hence it is called the Supreme Self."              (Self Knowledge and Self Realization - Nisargadatta Maharaj) "Glory to the Sad-Guru, the Supreme Self" WHO ARE YOU? ASK YOURSELF "WHO AM I?" AM I  MY THOUGHTS? AM I MY NAME? AM I MY BODY? AM I THE MIND or THE INTELLECT?" Maharaj: "Contemplate life as infinite, undivided, ever present, ever active, until you realize yourself as one with it. It is not even very difficult, for you will be returning only to your own natural condition. Once you realize that all comes from within, that the world in which you live has been projected not onto you, but by you, your fear comes to an end. Without this realization you identify yourself with externals, like body, mind, society, nation, humanity, even God or the Absolute, but these are all escapes from fear." Sri Siddharameshwar Maharaj                 The guru of Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj: siddharameshwar pathri Siddharameshwar Maharaj Siddharameshwar Maharaj  (d.1936) His teachings: The Bird's Way - Vihangam Marg " ...just as a bird flies from one tree to another. .... only by hearing and practising from the teachings of the Master and thinking it over  can  one attain  the Final Reality  very fast. One has to go into "Laya", ie  absorbing self. Ignorance has come through thoughts and if the thoughts are absorbed in reality, one can go to the Ultimate Reality by thinking only. He made ceaseless efforts to achieve this Final Reality, saying: "I will attain the Final Reality even at the cost of my life" By the grace of his Master, Sri Bhausaheb Maharaj, he attained the goal of Final Reality First, he gave the Knowledge of Final Reality to his disciples, and then asked them to renounce it, and then told told then to renounce, even the act of renunciation. Finally, he gave the knowledge of Vignana - the Thoughtless Reality  " NISARGADATTA MAHARAJ  recalls how  SIDDHARAMESHWAR MAHARAJ told him to abide in  the thought that he was PARABRAHMAN , the ABSOLUTE REALITY and to never waver from this, for one moment. "I believed him, and did as I was told". With     earnest    and   constant abidance ........ Within 3 years  Final Reality was attained! "The aspirant should take his Pure Self as his preceptor (guide) and pursue with sincerity and sincere love." (Shree Nisargadatta -  Self Knowledge and Self Realisation 1963) BHAUSAHEB MAHARAJ  (d.1914) was the guru of Sri Siddharameshwar Maharaj Sri Bhausaheb was initiated in 1858 by Nimbargi Maharaj (see below). He awakened and taught meditation, (THE ANT'S WAY - a SLOW WAY - PIPILIKA MARG) with the aim of attaining FINAL REALITY......Self-Realization. Sri Bhausaheb Maharaj was an Advaita (non-dual) Master with many disciples."He advised his disciples to perform worldly duties with perfect diligence. But he warned them that they should consider spiritual discipline to be the be-all-and-end-all of life and that it should claim their highest loyalty. Hence, while they are engaged in the daily work they should not fail to meditate on the Divine Name. “ [ie the Naam Mantra] There is a need to be patient, steadfast and earnest. The teachings are clear: Supreme Reality can only be realized within the heart and not the head. Sri Nimbargi Maharaj Sri Bhausaheb Maharaj Inchegiri Navnath Navnath lineage NavNath Sampradaya lineage of 9 gurus provides the basis and origins for  Nisargadatta's teachings. These teachings have truly blossomed and sown seeds in the minds and hearts of countless aspirants across the planet. Maharaj:" The Nine Masters’ tradition (Navnath Parampara) is like a river—it flows into the ocean of reality and whoever enters it is carried along. Those who practice the sadhana of focusing their minds on “I am” may feel related to others who have followed the same sadhana and succeeded. They may decide to verbalize their sense of kinship by calling themselves Navnaths." Nisargadatta Maharaj's  message on the Navnath lineage is that it is what you do that matters, and  not so much the Navnath tradition per se, that matters. Practise is essential. To the left is the guru of    Sri Bausaheb Maharaj Gurulingajangam  Maharaj also known as SRI NIMBARGI  MAHARAJ (d.1885) Nimbargi originated from NIMBARGA SAMPRADAYA a spiritual channel/lineage which includes the above gurus and Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj. "If you annihilate forgetfulness, and are steady in remembrance, life in qualityless Absolute, you would suffer from nothing in this world and will attain absolution in your own self. You should therefore, meditate without wasting a single moment, incessantly. The real meaning of life subsists in your own self Atman. All that is done without Atman and without seeing and remembering Him is meaningless, valueless and fruitless." * "Awakening is remembering Atman and forgetfulness is not-remembering Atman. Remembrance of Atman easily renders all work holy and  excellent. Always remember Atman, see and think of Him unceasingly, everything will be secured, and one will attain Peace - Swa-sthata, ‘Swa’ means one's own form i.e. Swarupa and 'Stha' means ‘steadiness’’ i.e. Sthirata. If you become steady in Self, you will be steady everywhere." * Navnath Lineage navnath Nisargadatta Maharaj's  teachings are direct, and often challenging for aspirants, both within and outside the Indian traditions. "I Am That" (1973 Ed. by Maurice Frydman) is a wonderful introduction to Nisargadatta Maharaj's teachings These teachings, have aided the spread of  Non-Dual understandings, across the World. Self Knowledge and Self Realization - Nisargadatta Maharaj Original navnath sampradaya The Navnath Sampradaya Lineage and the Disciples of Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj www.advaita.org.uk BELOW is a pdf of: "Self Knowledge and Self Realization" This is the original english translation . Published on the 8th day of April 1963, the 66th birthday of Shree Nisargadatta Maharaj. This is the ONLY BOOK EVER WRITTEN BY NISARGADATTA MAHARAJ. THIS UNDILUTED ENGLISH TRANSLATION PREDATES THE JEAN DUNN EDITION BY 15 YEARS. There are no changes to the original text in this original edition. It has been TRANSLATED BY V. M. KULKARNI, and contains an abridged preface by K.A. SABNIS from THE ORIGINAL MARATHI BOOK. Self Knowledge and Self Realization original (1).pdf	Self Knowledge and Self Realization original (1).pdf Size : 10875.486 Kb Type : pdf Edited by Jean Dunn: Seeds of Consciousness, Prior to Consciousness, and Consciousness and The Absolute The Ultimate Medicine , The Nectar of Immortality   and    The Experience of Nothingness - 3 books - Ed. Robert Powell Beyond Freedom - Maria Jory (2009) * "When you discover that self which has no colour, image, or design, you will no longer require freedom. You will be beyond freedom. The moment the "I Amness" explodes or appears, all of space is lit up. The entire sky is the expression of your Beingness. Even though this whole world is an expression of your Beingness, you believe that you are only the body. Your love for the body limits your horizons. But the moment those walls come down, you are one with Brahman and the whole universe."   *Beyond Freedom - Maria Jory from undiscovered recordings of Nisargadatta Maharaj teaching in the last 2 yrs of his life. "FINAL ABIDANCE IS AVAILABLE ONLY IN YOUR ASHRAM, AND NOWHERE ELSE... ................ i.e. IN THE HOUSE OF  " I - AM - NESS" Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj .......................................................................................................................................................................... The present day jnani in this lineage is Sri Ramakant Maharaj This Rare Direct Disciple and Self-Realized Master Offers Initiation into the Inchegiri Navnath Sampradaya. He himself was initiated by Nisargadatta Maharaj Oct 2nd 1962. Shri Ramakant Maharaj is a living disciple of Shri Nisargadatta Maharaj. He spent nearly 20 yrs with his Master Shri Ramakant Maharaj, 73 yrs old is sharing these Rare and High Teachings from the ashram in Nashik, Maharastra. He speaks English and Marathi Recommended: INTERVIEW WITH SRI RAMAKANT MAHARAJ↓ Lineage chart from www.advaita.org.uk: Navnath sampradaya From the Lineage Table above, you will see Sri Ramakant Maharaj - currently the only Indian, direct disciple giving these teachings, and offering the Naam Mantra and initiation into the Inchegiri Navnath Sampradaya. Jnani Ramakant Maharaj INFORMATIVE INTERVIEW WITH SRI RAMAKANT MAHARAJ  ↓ "Your Presence is Spontaneous, Anonymous, Invisible, Silent, Unidentified Identity" Ramakant Maharaj "Except for Selfless Self there is no God, no Brahman, no Atman, no Master, no Parabrahman....."  Ramakant Maharaj See: www.ramakantmaharaj.net Golden Day .pdf	Golden Day .pdf Size : 1213.326 Kb Type : pdf Shri Siddharameshwar Maharaj (Nisargadatta Maharaj's guru) ... writings to look out for are  Golden Day - a sermon given by Siddharameshwar Maharaj, Master of Self Realization Vols  1 & 2 transcribed by Nisargadatta Maharaj from 130 talks given by Siddharameshwar Maharaj over the last 2 years of his life. Other Realized Masters from Siddharameshwar Maharaj's line include  Shri Ranjit Maharaj ( Illusion V Reality) and Shri Ganapatrao Maharaj. More details to follow on these Masters. Also recommended: Dasbodh  by Shri Samarth Ramdas (recently translated into English). Download:  http://www.dasbodh.org Some of these texts of lineage teachings can be found on the web  and freely as pdf's. The Masters of this lineage do stress the need to keep commercially oriented efforts out of these teachings, but it does cost money for hard copy books, so costs do come in for these. Ranjit Maharaj siddharameshwar pathri Shri Ranjit Maharaj, on left. Shri Siddharmeshwar Maharaj above. Siddharameshwar Maharaj was the guru of Ranjit Maharaj, Nisargadatta Maharaj, Bainath Maharaj, Kadsiddeshwar Maharaj, Ganapatrao Maharaj and others .... Biography of Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj When asked about his biographical details, Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj used to say "I was never born", for he does not identify himself with his body. He identified himself only with the eternal and pure beingness. However, here is a shory biogrpahy of Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj, the person. Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj was born in March 1897, on the day the birthday of Lord Hanuman. In honor of Lord Hanuman, he was given the name 'Maruti'. Nisargadatta's father, Shivrampant, worked as a domestic servant in Mumbai and later as a petty farmer in Kandalgaon, a small village in the back-woods of Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. Mariti's family followed the traditional Hindu culture. At the tender age of 18, in the year 1915, Maruti's father passed away. After the death of his father, Maruti followed his oldest brother to Bombay. Mariti started working as a small-time clerk in an office near Bombay, but soon opened a small goods store selling bidis (leaf-rolled cigarettes). He became successful in this venture. In 1924 he married Sumatibai. They had three daughters and a son. Maruti had a wise friend named Yashwantrao Bagkar. They often would have spiritual discussions. One day Yashwantrao brought Maruti to meet Shri Siddharameshwar Maharaj, his future guru. Sri Siddharameshwar Maharaj, was then the head of the Inchegeri branch of the Navnath Sampradaya. Maruti was given a Mantra, which is totally in keeping with the Navnath tradition, and instructions on how to meditate. His guru told him to concentrate on the feeling "I Am" and to remain in that state. Maruti did not follow any particular course of breathing, or meditation, or study of scriptures. He mearly followed his gurus instruction of concentrating on the feeling "I am", and within three years, the realization dawned on him and he got Self-awareness. Sri Siddharameshwar died in 1936 and evoked in Maruti a strong feeling of renunciation which he acted upon. He abandoned his family and bidi businesses and took off for the Himalayas. Srikant Gogte and P.T. Phadol, in the introduction of Sri Nisargadatta's book "I am That" say of this, "On his way to the Himalayas, where he was planning to spend the rest of his life, he met a brother-disciple, who convinced him about the shortcomings of a totally unworldly life and the greater spiritual fruitfulness of dispassion in action." When he returned he found that out of six shops only one remained, but that was enough for the sustenance of his family, Maruti adopted the name of Nisargadatta and inherited membership into the Navnath Sampradaya sect. He devoting all his free time to meditation on his guru’s instruction. Sri Nisargadatta continued to live the life of an ordinary Indian working-man but his teaching, which he set out in his master-work "I Am That" and which are rooted in the ancient Upanishadic tradition, made a significant philosophical break from contemporary thought. Devotees traveled from all over the world to hear Nisargadatta's unique message until his death. Maharaj left his mortal frame in 1981, suffering with throat cancer. An example of one who was moved by his works is Aziz Kristof, billed as a non-traditional Advaita Zen master, who, upon reading Nisargadatta's book I Am That, writes most eloquently: "At that moment, I knew that I found my master. He spoke to my essence, his spirit deeply touched my heart. From him I realised the necessity of stabilising the State Presence to which I was already awakened. He called this the I Am-ness. For the first time, I received clarity regarding the Path and recognised the necessity of the right effort. Maintaining the State of Presence became a new task; it was a new challenge. I went for long walks, attempting not to lose the State, not for a single moment." Nisagadatta's Style of Teaching He explained that the purpose of advanced spirituality is to simply know who you are. Through his many talks given in his humble flat in the slums of Bombay, he showed a direct way in which one could become aware of one's original nature. Many of these talks were recorded, and these recordings form the basis of I Am That and his other books. His words are free from cultural and religious trappings, and the knowledge he expounds is stripped bare of all that is unnecessary. In the words of Advaita scholar Dr. Robert Powell: "Like the Zen masters of old, Nisargadatta's style is abrupt, provocative, and immensely profound -- cutting to the core and wasting little effort on inessentials. His terse but potent sayings are known for their ability to trigger shifts in consciousness, just by hearing, or even reading them." Navnath Sampradaya - The lineage of nine gurus Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj belongs to the Navnath Sampradaya, the lineage which originated from the nine gurus.  Nisargadatta himself did not stress his lineage with most of his western devotees. The Nath Sampradaya, later known as the Navnath Sampradaya, is a sect originated with the teachings of the mythical Rishi Dattatreya, who is believed to be a combined incarnation of the holy trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva. The unique spiritual attainments of this legendary figure are mentioned in the Bhagavata Purana, the Mahabharata and also in some later Upanishads. Others hold that it is an offshoot of the Hatha Yoga. Whatever be its origin, the teachings of the Nath Sampradaya have, over the centuries, become labyrinthine in complexity and have assumed different forms in different parts of India. Some Gurus of the Sampradaya lay stress on bhakti, devotion; others on jnana, knowledge; still others on yoga, the union with the ultimate. In the fourteenth century we find Svatmarama Svami, the great Hathayogin, bemoaning ‘the darkness arising out of multiplicity of opinions’ to displel which he lit the lamp of his famous work Hathayogapradipika. According to some learned commentators, the Nath Gurus propound that the entire creation is born out of nada (sound), the divine principle, and bindu (light), the physical principle and the Supreme Reality from which these two principles emanate is Shiva. Liberation according to them is merging of the soul into Shiva through the process of laya, dissolution of the human ego, the sense of I-ness. In the day-to-day instructions to their devotees, however, the Nath Gurus seldom refer to the metaphysics discovered by the scholars in their teachings. In fact their approach is totally non-metaphysical, simple and direct. While the chanting of sacred hyms and devotional songs as well as the worship of the idols is a traditional feature of the sect, its teaching emphasises that the Supreme Reality can be realised only within the heart. The Nath Sampradaya came to be known as Navnath Sampradaya when sometime in the remote past, the followers of the sect chose nine of their early Gurus as examplars of their creed. Bur there is no unanimity regarding the names of these nine Masters. The most widely accepted list however is as follows: Matsyendranath Gorakhnath Jalandharnath Kantinath Gahininath Bhartrinath Revananath Charpatnath Naganath Of these nine Masters, Gahaninath and Revananath had large followings in the southern part of India, including Maharashtra, the state to which Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj belongs. Revananath is said to have founded a sub-sect of his own and chose Kadasiddha as his chief disciple and successor. The latter initiated Lingajangam Maharaj and Bhausahib Maharaj and entrusted to their care his Ashram and the propagation of his teaching. Bhausahib Maharaj later established what came to be known as Inchegeri Sampradaya, a new movement within the traditional fold. Among his disciples were Amburao Maharaj, Girimalleshwar Maharaj, Siddharameshwar Maharaj and the noted philosopher Dr. R. D. Renade. Sri Nisargadatta Maharaj is the direct disciple and successor of Siddharameshwar Maharaj. It may be mentioned here that, though officially the current Guru of the Inchegeri branch of the Navnath Sampradaya, Sri Nisargadatta does not seem to attach much importance to sects, cults and creeds, including his own. In answer to a questioner whi wished to join the Navnath Sampradaya he said: "The Navnath Sampradaya is only a tradition, a way of teaching and practice. It does not denote a level of consciousness. If you accept a Navnath Sampradaya teacher as your Guru, you join his Sampradaya... Your belonging is a matter of your own feeling and conviction. After all it is all verbal and formal. In reality there is neither Guru nor disciple, neither theory nor practice, neither ignorance nor realisation. It all depends upon what you take yourself to be. Know yourself correctly. There is no substitute for self-knowledge" The teaching of Nath Sampradaya offers the seeker the royal road to liberation, a road in which all the four by-lanes of bhakti, jnana, karma and dhyana of Lord Shiva, in his hagiography, entitled Nathlingamrita, claims that the path shown by the Nath sect is the best of all and it leads to direct liberation. Article Source: http://nisargadatta.net/Navnath_Sampradaya.html More Info: Navnath Sampradaya as explained by Nisargadatta Maharaj La doctrina advaita (o Advaita Vedānta (/ʌðˈvaɪtə vɛˈðɑːntə/; Sánscrito: अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST: Advaita Vedānta, literalmente 'no dualidad') es una rama no dualista del hinduismo que afirma la unidad entre las almas (atman) y la divinidad (Brahman). El filósofo indio Shankara (788-820) conformó esta doctrina a partir de las escrituras Upanishad (importantes textos hinduistas que reformaron la antigua religión védica y la convirtieron en el hinduismo actual) y los de su propio profesor Gaudapada. Analiza los tres estados de la conciencia —el estado de vigilia, sueño y sueño profundo— y demuestra que el mundo tiene un carácter relativo. Establece entonces la verdad suprema de advaita: la no dualidad de la realidad. Brahman (la divinidad impersonal) y el atman (cada una de las almas individuales) son solo uno: todas las almas son Dios. El Brahman (Dios) es la única realidad del mundo. Aparte del Brahman, todo es falso: el universo, los objetos materiales y las personas. Bajo la influencia de la ilusión (maia), cada alma cree que es un cuerpo, que está separada de Dios y es diferente de él. Cuando el alma individual elimina el velo de maia, se da cuenta de la verdad: no hay diferencia entre ella y Dios. Las teorías de Shankara fueron controvertidas desde el principio. La filosofía advaita es la más profunda de la India,[cita requerida] pero no es muy difundida, aunque es probablemente la más conocida de las doctrinas vedanta. Los vedantistas consideran que el Brahman se puede conocer como Saguna Brahman (Dios con cualidades) o Nirguna Brahman (Dios sin atributos). Creen que la actitud devota hacia el Saguna Brahman (como los dioses Vishnú, Shivá o Kalí) ayudan al alma a liberarse del velo de maia y descubrir la verdad final: Dios no tiene atributos ni cualidades. Índice 1	Adualidad (no dualidad) 2	Advaita en el siglo XX 3	Semejanzas del advaita con otras religiones 4	Nulidad del tiempo 5	El individuo no es el hacedor 6	Textos clave 7	Véase también 8	Bibliografía 9	Enlaces externos Adualidad (no dualidad) Artículo principal: No dualidad La doctrina vedānta advaita promueve la existencia de un ser unido a la totalidad de seres existentes, hasta tal punto que no puede hablarse de relación entre los distintos seres, sino de unidad total con todo. Es la unión entre el sujeto que percibe y lo percibido. La falsa apariencia de ser múltiple lo que en realidad es uno, es debido a la función mental de conceptualizar, que consiste en definir y para ello dividir en partes lo que no está dividido. Así, cuando la mente abandona el proceso de conceptualización, la realidad de ser uno se revela, sin dejar dudas, como un hecho puramente objetivo. Ante la pregunta fundamental «¿quién soy yo?», la respuesta es la no conceptualización. La expresión «Yo soy» seguida de silencio sugiere esta respuesta. Advaita en el siglo XX Los principales referentes del advaita en el siglo XX fueron: el religioso indio Ramana Maharshi (1879-1950); el religioso indio Swami Chinmaiananda (1916-1993) ―quien en 1953 empezó la organización Chinmaya Mission que ahora tiene más de 30 centros en todo el mundo―; y Nisargadatta (1897-1981), que escribió el libro I am that y fue el gurú de Ramesh Balsekar, el cual ha tenido influencia en la comprensión del advaita en Occidente, siendo el gurú de modernos maestros occidentales del advaita como el estadounidense Wayne Liquorman. Esta rama de la doctrina advaita está introduciendo paulatinamente desde finales del siglo XX la comprensión del no dualismo en el corazón de Occidente, como ya se puede vislumbrar en el inicio del siglo XXI tanto en obras publicadas en diversos países occidentales, como en la aparición de escuelas de yoga en las que se ofrecen acercamientos a la meditación inspirada en la doctrina advaita. El cisne es un símbolo importante en las creencias advaitas. Puede moverse a través del agua sin mojar sus plumas; es simbólico del hombre iluminado que no es afectado por sucesos y cosas en el mundo. Semejanzas del advaita con otras religiones El advaita vedanta tiene una gran afinidad con diversos movimientos en su aspecto más místico. Se encuentran resonancias con el zen, el sufismo, el taoísmo, el tantrismo, los místicos cristianos, etc. Estas semejanzas se consideran naturales desde el advaita debido a que el no dualismo se aplica también a cualquier otra doctrina o mística, de modo que en lo más profundo de ellas resuena la unidad, una única verdad, tal como se presencia desde el advaita, donde todo forma parte del uno. Nulidad del tiempo Para comprender bien el advaita es importante tener en consideración que la doctrina advaita aplica el no dualismo absolutamente a todo, incluyendo al mundo, a la consciencia, a las ideas (que según la doctrina advaita provienen de una única fuente) y al universo entero, tanto en su dimensión espacial como en la temporal. Por lo tanto, en el advaita no sólo el espacio es una ilusión (maya), sino también el tiempo. El énfasis se hace en que «todo sucede aquí y ahora», pero no considerando el aquí-ahora de un modo literal, sino en un sentido atemporal y no espacial. El individuo no es el hacedor Otro punto fundamental en el advaita es el que remarcó Ramana Maharshi acerca de que «el individuo no es el hacedor». El individuo como entidad independiente es considerado como una mera conceptualización: algo ilusorio. Por lo tanto, los actos que comúnmente se atribuyen al individuo no son sino obra de esa no dualidad, llamada frecuentemente ser, vida, unidad, conciencia o simplemente ―emulando al maestro Nisargadatta Maharaj― eso. Es la conciencia (o eso) quien realiza todas las acciones en el universo, incluidas las que son llevadas a cabo a través de individuos que creen ser independientes del resto. Textos clave Los textos clave en la escuela vedānta son los llamados Prasthana Trayi (tres pruebas), textos canónicos que comprenden las Upanishad, el Bhagavad-guita y los Brahma-sutras. Son los auténticos clásicos de esta doctrina. Más recientemente surgieron los valiosos textos que escribió Ramana Maharshi y el libro más conocido de Nisargadatta, Yo soy eso. Y finalmente han aparecido libros más enfocados al público occidental, sin el exceso de terminología hinduista habitual de las obras anteriores. Ejemplos de estos últimos son Habla la conciencia (de Ramesh Balsekar) y Lo que es (de Tony Parsons). Véase también Idealismo Monismo Dualismo Vedanta Ioga-vásista Bibliografía Martín Diza, Consuelo: Upanishad con los comentarios advaita de Śankara. Madrid: Trotta, 2001 [2.ª edición: 2009]. ISBN 978-84-8164-453-1. —, Bhagavad Gita con los comentarios advaita de Śankara. Madrid: Trotta, 1997 [6.ª edición: 2009]. ISBN 978-84-8164-545-3. —, Brahma-sutras. Con los comentarios advaita de Śankara. Madrid: Trotta, 2000. ISBN 978-84-8164-385-5. Vedāntasāra. La esencia del Vedānta. Edición bilingüe del Vedantasara de Sadananda, primera versión directa que se realiza al castellano. Traducción y edición de Javier Ruiz Calderón. Publicacions i edicions de la Universitat de Barcelona. Colección Pliegos de Oriente. Madrid: Editorial Trotta, 2009. ISBN 978-84-9879-059-7. Enlaces externos L’Advaita Vedānta (sanskrit IAST ; devanāgarī : अद्वैत वेदान्त.) est la forme la plus répandue de la philosophie du Vedānta1. Il s'agit de la doctrine non dualiste du Vedānta2. Advaita signifie littéralement « non deux » et se traduit le plus souvent par non-dualité3. Son principe fondamental affirme la non différenciation de l'individualité ou l'âme individuelle4 (jīvātman) et de la Totalité (Brahman) qui est neutre. Cette doctrine fut enseignée par le réformateur religieux Adi Shankara. L’Advaita, qui s'oppose à l'école Dvaita, est une des doctrines majeures de la philosophie indienne āstika5,1, dont l'origine peut se trouver dans le Rig-Veda qui affirmait que « la vérité est une, bien que les sages la voient sous de multiples formes ». La plupart des maîtres hindous (guru) ont été influencés par celle-ci. Cette doctrine repose sur plusieurs principes fondamentaux. Comme dans toute école de la philosophie indienne des points de vue au sein même de l'Advaita Vedānta existent. Sommaire 1	Philosophes de l'Advaita Vedānta 1.1	Maîtres anciens 1.2	Adi Shankara 1.3	À l'époque contemporaine 2	Principes fondamentaux 2.1	Trois niveaux de vérité 2.2	Le Brahman 2.3	La Māyā 2.4	Ishvara 2.5	L'Ātman 3	Points de vue 3.1	Le Salut 3.2	Autres points 4	Bibliographie 5	Notes et références 6	Voir aussi 6.1	Articles connexes Philosophes de l'Advaita Vedānta Maîtres anciens Les maîtres anciens représentatifs de cette école se nomment : Gauḍapāda (vie ou viie siècle), maître de Govinda Bhagavatpada Govinda Bhagavatpada (viie ou viiie siècle), le maître du célèbre Adi Shankara Adi Shankara (viiie siècle) Vacaspatimiçra (vers 850) Padmapada (ixe siècle) Sureshvara (ixe siècle) Mandanamiçra (ixe siècle) Anandagiri, disciple de Shankara (ixe siècle) Sadananda, auteur d'un manuel classique, le Vedāntasāra (xve siècle). Adi Shankara Article détaillé : Adi Shankara. Adi Shankara. L'une des personnes à qui l'on doit d'avoir consolidé les principes de l'advaita est Ādi Śaṅkara (आदि शंकर, prononcé comme /α:di shənkərə/, 788-820). Il est également connu comme Shankaracharya (शंकराचार्य, prononcé comme /shənkərα: tchα:ryə/). Shankara était un moine orthodoxe-hindou, qui a parcouru l'Inde du Sud vers le Nord. Les disciples les plus enthousiastes de la tradition de l'advaita prétendent qu'il fut le principal acteur de l'expulsion de la foi bouddhiste hors des frontières, favorisant un retour à l'hindouisme sur sa terre natale. Continuant la ligne de pensée de certains guru enseignant les Upaniṣad, et notamment de son propre guru, Govindanātha, Shankara a exposé la doctrine de l’advaita, une réalité non-dualiste. Selon les advaitins (partisans de l’Advaita Vedānta), Shankara a exposé la nature relative du monde et a établi la vérité suprême de l’advaita en décrivant les quatre états : état de veille (vaishvanara), état de rêve (svapna), état de sommeil profond (sushupti), état transcendantal (turīya, littéralement "quatrième"), état au-delà de veille, sommeil et rêve. À la suite de Ramanuja, certains ont accusé Shankara d'être un pracchana bauddha (« bouddhiste déguisé »)6, du fait de la similitude entre sa pensée et celle de l'école Madhyamika. À l'époque contemporaine Plusieurs maîtres hindous se rattachent à la tradition de l'Advaita Vedānta, comme Ramakrishna, Swami Vivekananda, Ramana Maharshi, Nisargadatta Maharaj, Hari Wanch Lal Poonja. Principes fondamentaux Trois niveaux de vérité Le niveau transcendantal, ou pāramārthika, dans lequel Brahman est la seule réalité et rien d'autre ; Le niveau pragmatique, ou vyāvahārika, dans lequel le jīva (individualité) et Dieu (Ishvara) sont vrais ; ici, le monde matériel est complètement vrai ; Le niveau apparent ou prātibhāsika dans lequel la réalité de monde matériel est en fait fausse, comme l'illusion d'un serpent qui est en fait une corde, ou celle d'un rêve. Le Brahman Om, le son éternel, symbolise le brahman. Selon Shankara, le Brahman (prononcé comme /brəh mən/ ; nominatif singulier Brahma, prononcé comme /brəh mα/) est l'Un, l'ensemble et la seule réalité dans le monde. En dehors du Brahman, rien d'autre, y compris Dieu, l'univers, les objets matériels et les individus, n'est vrai. Le Brahman est au mieux décrit comme la réalité infinie, omniprésente, toute-puissante, incorporelle, impersonnelle, transcendante et immanente, qui est l'essence divine de toute existence. Bien que n'étant pas une substance physique, il est la base du monde matériel, qui est sa transformation illusoire. Le Brahman est la cause du monde. On dit de lui qu'il est la connaissance la plus pure et qu'il resplendit comme une source de lumière infinie. En raison de l'ignorance (Avidyā), le Brahman est confondu avec le monde matériel et ses objets. Le véritable Brahman est sans-attribut et informe (nirguna-Brahman). En l'être humain, il est partiellement perçu comme étant le Soi, l'Absolu et l'Impérissable (rarement objet d'adoration, mais plutôt de méditation). Le Brahman est en fait indescriptible. Shankara dit que Brahman ne peut pas être identifié avec Śūnyatā ou la vacuité du Bouddhisme. Au mieux, on le considère comme la Vérité infinie (Sat), la Conscience infinie (Chit) et la Félicité suprême (ānanda). Aussi, le Brahman transcende les différences : nul ne lui est semblable (sajatiya bheda) parce qu'il ne peut y avoir deux Brahman. Nul ne lui est différent (vijātīya bheda) car il n'y a personne existant en dehors de la réalité du Brahman. De même, qu'il n'est pas sujet à des transformations substantielles (svagata bheda). Il est Un, uni-substantiel et immuable. Bien que le Brahman soit en soi prouvé, quelques preuves logiques ont été aussi proposées par Shankara, du point de vue : de la Shruti ; les Upanishad, la Bhagavad-Gītā et les Brahma-Sūtra ; ils décrivent Brahman de la même manière que Shankara. Ceci est la preuve empirique d'un témoignage du brahman ; psychologique ; chaque personne ressent son âme, ou Ātman, ou, selon Shankara, l'Ātman est le Brahman. Cet argument prouve aussi le Brahman ; théologique ; le monde apparaît très bien ordonné et harmonieux ; la raison pour ceci ne peut pas être un principe inconscient, hasardeux. La raison doit être le Brahman. L'élément essentiel ; Brahman est la base de ce monde créé. La sensation perceptible ; beaucoup de gens, quand ils atteignent l'état de turīya, prétendent que leur âme est devenue un avec le Tout. La sensation de cette perception de transcendance est considérée comme la meilleure preuve de l'existence du Brahman. La Māyā Māyā (/mα: yα:/) est la contribution la plus importante de Shankara. La Māyā est ce pouvoir illusoire et complexe de Brahman qui a pour conséquence de le rendre comme perceptible dans le monde matériel distinct. Māyā a deux fonctions principales : la première est de devoir cacher le Brahman aux esprits humains, et l'autre est de devoir présenter le monde matériel comme vrai. La Māyā est aussi indescriptible. Elle est ni complètement réelle ni complètement fausse, donc indescriptible. Son abri est Brahman, mais Brahman lui-même n'est pas atteint par l'impiété de Māyā, de la même manière qu'un magicien n'est pas trompé par sa propre magie. La Māyā est temporaire et est détruite avec « la vraie connaissance ». Ce Māyāvāda de Sankara a été extrêmement critiqué et a été mal compris. Bhaskaracharya, un mathématicien hindou, dit que Shankara doit aux bouddhistes son concept de Māyā. Mais Guff, Cowell et d'autres auteurs affirment que le concept de Māyā est déjà présent dans les Védas et les Upanishad sous une forme embryonnaire. Shankara avait utilisé les termes de Māyā (Illusion cosmique) et d'Avidyā (Ignorance) dans le même sens, mais les Advaïtins suivants ont distingué Māyā comme la force positive de Dieu et Avidyā comme une connaissance négative. Le concept de Māyā semble être une hypothèse. Puisque selon les Upanishad, seul Brahman est vrai, nous constatons néanmoins que le monde matériel l'est aussi : Shankara a expliqué cette aporie par le concept de la Māyā, le pouvoir illusoire. Ishvara Ishvara (IAST: Īśvara, prononcé comme /ī:sh vərə/, lit., le Seigneur Suprême) : lorsque l'homme essaie de connaître les attributs de Brahman avec son esprit, sous l'influence de Māyā, Brahman est perceptible comme étant Îshvara. Ishvara est Brahman avec la Māyā. Shankara utilise la métaphore suivante : lorsque le « reflet » de l'Esprit Cosmique tombe sur le miroir de Māyā, il apparaît comme le Seigneur Suprême. Le Seigneur Suprême est vrai seulement dans le niveau pragmatique — sa véritable forme dans la sphère transcendantale est l'Esprit Cosmique. Ishvara est 'saguna-Brahman (Absolu qualifié) ou Brahman avec les qualités favorables et innombrables. Il est tout parfait, omniscient, omniprésent, incorporel, indépendant, le créateur du monde (Brahmā), son protecteur (Vishnou) et aussi son destructeur (« Hara », Shiva). Il est sans raison, éternel et invariable — et est pourtant la cause première de la manifestation universelle, de l'Etre. Il est deux fois immanent (comme la blancheur du lait) et transcendant (comme l’indépendance de l'horloger pour sa montre). Il peut même être considéré comme ayant une personnalité. Il est le sujet d'adoration. Il est la source de la moralité et le donateur des fruits du Karma . Cependant, il est au-delà du péché et du mérite. Il gouverne le monde avec sa Māyā — son pouvoir divin. Cette association avec une connaissance « fausse » n'affecte pas la perfection d'Îshvara, comme un artiste n'est pas trompé par son art. Cependant, si Îshvara est le seigneur de la Māyā, qui est toujours sous son contrôle, les êtres vivants (jiva, âmes incarnées en créatures) sont les serviteurs de la Māyā (par le biais de l'ignorance). Cette ignorance est la cause du chagrin et du péché dans le monde mortel. Alors qu'Îshvara est la félicité infinie, la béatitude, les humains quant à eux sont pitoyables, sources de souffrance. Îshvara a toujours conscience de l'unité de la nature de Brahman, et de la nature illusoire du monde. Les Advaïtins expliquent la misère par l'ignorance. Ishvara peut être envisagé ou adoré aussi dans la forme anthropomorphique comme Vishnu , Krishna ou Shiva . Ainsi, se pose la question de savoir pourquoi le Seigneur Suprême a créé le monde. Si l'un suppose que Ishvara crée le monde d'un but intéressé, ceci diffame la nature plénière et la perfection de Îshvara. Par exemple, si l'un suppose qu'Îshvara crée le monde pour obtenir quelque chose, ce serait contre sa perfection. Si nous supposons qu'il crée pour la compassion, ce serait illogique, parce que le sentiment de compassion ne peut pas exister dans le monde vide d'avant la création (quand seulement Dieu existait). Donc Shankara suppose que cette Création est le jeu (līlā) spontané d’Îshvara. C'est sa nature, tout comme c'est la nature de l'homme de respirer. Les seules preuves de Dieu qu'expose Shankara sont les mentions dans la Shruti (Révélation : les Véda) de Dieu, Dieu étant hors de la logique et hors de la pensée. Ceci est similaire à la philosophie de Kant, qui disait que la « foi » est la base du théisme. Cependant, Shankara a donné peu d'autres preuves logiques pour Dieu, dans le but que l'on porte attention dessus, non pas pour s'appuyer dessus entièrement : Le monde est un travail — une œuvre pensée, un effet, et donc doit avoir une cause vraie. Cette cause doit être Ishvara. Le monde a une unité, une coordination et un ordre, donc son dirigeant doit être une personne intelligente. Les gens font de bonnes et mauvaises actions, et obtiennent en retour les fruits de leurs actes, dans cette vie ou après. Les gens ne peuvent pas être leur propre prodigueur de ces fruits, parce que personne ne se donnerait le fruit de son péché. Aussi, ce donateur ne peut pas être un objet inconscient. Donc le donateur des fruits du Karma est Dieu. L'Ātman Le cygne symbolise deux choses en Advaita Vedānta : premièrement, en sanscrit, il est appelé haṃsa (avant un /h/ du mot suivant--« hamso »), et en répétant ce mot continuellement, il devient so-aham, qui signifie « je suis cela ». Deuxièmement, il représente une personne libérée. Tout comme le cygne habite sur l'eau, mais ses plumes ne sont pas salies par l'eau, de même, une personne libérée habite dans ce monde de Māyā, mais n'est pas touchée par cette illusion. Dans la philosophie de l'Advaita Vedānta le soi non individualisé (Ātman) que l'on confond parfois avec le concept d'âme est exactement égal à Brahman. Ce n'est pas une partie de Brahman qui se dissout finalement dans Brahman, mais le Brahman entier lui-même. Alors, les sceptiques demandent comment l'âme individuelle, laquelle est limitée et une dans chaque corps, peut être pareille à Brahman ? Shankara explique que l'âme n'est pas un concept individuel. L'Ātman est seulement un et unique. Le concept selon lequel il y a plusieurs ātman est faux. Shankara dit que tout comme la même lune apparaît comme multiple à travers ses reflets sur la surface d'une eau couverte de bulles, l'unique Âtman apparait comme de multiples ātman dans nos corps à cause de la Māyā. L'Ātman se prouve de lui-même, cependant, quelques preuves sont discutées. Par exemple, une personne dit « je suis aveugle », « je suis heureux », « je suis gros », etc. Donc quel est cet ego, ici ? Seulement cette chose est l'ego qui est là-bas dans tous les états de cette personne — cela prouve l'existence de l'Ātman, et aussi que la conscience est sa caractéristique. La réalité et la félicité sont aussi ses caractéristiques. Par sa nature, l'Ātman est libre et au-delà du péché et du mérite. Il n'éprouve ni le bonheur ni la douleur. Il ne produit pas de Karma. Il est incorporel. Quand le reflet de l’Ātman tombe sur Avidyā (l'ignorance), l'Ātman devient jīva — un être vivant, avec un corps et des sens. Chaque jîva se sent comme s'il avait son propre Ātman, unique et distinct, appelé jīvātman, "âme individuelle". Le concept de jīva est vrai seulement au niveau pragmatique. Au niveau transcendantal, seul l'unique Ātman, égal à Brahman, est vrai. Points de vue Le Salut La libération, ou Moksha (apparenté au Nirvana des bouddhistes) — Les Advaïtins croient aussi en la théorie de la réincarnation du jīva (âme individuelle) en plantes, en animaux et en humains selon leur karma. Ils croient que la raison de cette souffrance est Māyā, et seulement la vraie connaissance du Brahman peut détruire Māyā. Quand la Māyā est enlevée, il n'existe finalement pas de différence entre le Jīva-Ātman et le Brahman. Un tel état de félicité, appelé Moksha ("Délivrance"), peut être atteint même pendant que l'on vit (jīvanmukta : "délivré vivant"). Pendant que quelqu'un est dans le niveau pragmatique, il peut (et doit) adorer Dieu de quelque façon que ce soit et sous n'importe quelle forme, par exemple celle de Krishna, comme il le souhaite. Shankara lui-même était partisan de la dévotion ou Bhakti. Shankara croit que les sacrifices védiques, la pūjā (cérémonie rituelle) et la bhakti (dévotion) peuvent mener l'homme à la vraie connaissance. Cependant, ils ne peuvent pas le mener directement au Moksha. Le Moksha est uniquement issue de la vraie connaissance. Autres points Le mantra célèbre de Shankara était « Brahma Satyam Jagat Mithya, jivo Brahmaiva naparah », c'est-à-dire "Brahman est la seule vérité, le monde est irréel, et il n'y a finalement pas de différence entre Brahman et l'individu-soi. Shankara condamnait explicitement le système des castes de la société hindoue, le disant stupide[réf. souhaitée]. Une telle attitude était en opposition aux autres écoles, comme Vishishtâdvaïta (Monisme mitigé), Dvaita-Vedānta (Vedānta dualiste) et Mīmāṃsā, qui croient que, la caste étant basée sur le karma de la vie précédente, elle devrait être suivie sans question[réf. nécessaire]. Shankara a condamné beaucoup d’autres superstitions. Bibliographie Advaita Vedānta Up to Śaṃkara and His Pupils, Encyclopedia of Indian philosophies, vol. III. Karl H. Potter. Éd.Motilal Banarsidass, 2008. (ISBN 978-8-120-80310-7) Advaita Vedānta from 800 to 1200, Encyclopedia of Indian philosophies, vol. XI. Karl H. Potter. Éd.Motilal Banarsidass, 2006. (ISBN 978-8-120-80307-7) Sankara, Prolégomènes au Vedânta de Louis Renou, Almora, 2011. Œuvres de Shankara dans Râmana Maharshi, Œuvres réunies, Paris, Éditions traditionnelles, 1988, p. 213-314 : Hymne dédié à Dakshinamûrti, Hymne à la louange du Guru (Guru Stuti), Hymne de Hastâmalaka, Connaissance de Soi (Atmâ-Bodha), Le plus beau fleuron de la discrimination (Vivéka-chûdâmani), Comment discriminer le spectateur du spectacle (Drik-Drishya-Vivéka). La lampe de la connaissance non duelle (Advaita Bodha Deepika) de Sankaracharya, Le Mercure Dauphinois, 2011. Sinha, H. P., Bharatiya Darshan ki ruparekha (Forme de la Philosophie Indienne), 1993, Motilal Benarasidas, Delhi–Varanasi. L'homme et son devenir selon le Vêdânta, de René Guénon, Éditions Traditionnelles (1925) - réédité en 2000 (ISBN 978-2-7138-0065-8). Astavakra Gîtâ (1951)- Avadhuta Gîtâ (1958), de Alexandra David-Néel, Éditions du Rocher. (Regroupés et réédités en un seul volume en 1994 (ISBN 978-2-268-01690-0)). Notes et références Jean Filliozat, « Advaita », Encyclopædia Universalis en ligne [archive], consulté le 16 septembre 2014 Qu'est-ce que l'advaita vedanta ?. Eliot Deutsch. Éd. Les Deux Océans, Paris, 1980 (page 9). (ISBN 978-2-86681-105-1) Dans la métaphysique indienne, la négation est considérée comme supérieure à l'affirmation - Car la négation d'une chose implique tout ce qui n'est pas cette chose, c'est-à-dire un ensemble beaucoup plus vaste que l'affirmation d'une autre chose. Dans la tradition islamique, la première partie de la shahada est aussi exprimée sous la forme d'une négation. The Sanskrit Heritage Dictionary donne « vie » et « âme individuelle » comme définition première du terme sanskrit jīva René Guénon en a fait une présentation dans son ouvrage L'Homme et son Devenir selon le Vedānta (paru en 1925), et Alexandra David-Néel a traduit deux textes essentiels intitulés Aṣṭāvakra Gītā et Avadhūta Gītā (1951 et 1958). Ces trois textes, clairs et très documentés peuvent constituer une première approche de cette philosophie (en) Brainerd Prince, The Integral Philosophy of Aurobindo: Hermeneutics and the Study of Religion, Routledge, 20 janvier 2017 (ISBN 9781317194460, lire en ligne [archive]), p. 127 Voir aussi Articles connexes Jnana Yoga 吠檀多不二論(梵語:Advaita Vedānta,天城文:अद्वैत वेदान्त,IPA:/əd̪vait̪ə veːd̪ɑːnt̪ə/)是印度哲学中最为突出的韦丹塔(即吠檀多),梵文Vedanta的字面意思是吠陀(Veda)的终极结论,也就是吠陀经典(Veda)的最后结论。 Advaita,字面解非二元或不二,是一种一元思想体系。Advaita主要指自我(Atman)和梵(Brahman)是绝对一和同(one and the same);另一个主要的术语Advitiya,意思是除了梵之外没有任何是一切事物)。第一个有系统整理不二论的而且著作还依然广泛流传的是商羯罗[1]。 目录 1	商羯罗大师 1.1	梵 2	梵我同一 3	摩耶 3.1	因与果 4	上師的必须性 4.1	师徒传承 5	不二论修院 6	达萨纳米传统 7	不二论的历史 商羯罗大师 商羯罗大师将吠陀经典和不二论上师基于吠陀经典写成的文献及乔荼波陀所倡导的不二论系统化地整理出来。与奥义书和导师及乔荼波陀一脉相承,商羯罗大师将不二论的教说(唯一的非二元的真实是梵或不二自我)详细地加以说明和文字化整理。 以下的箴言是他的对不二论的总结。梵是唯一真实,世界如梦境一般;梵与自我终究是没有分别的。(Brahma satyaṃ jagat mithyā, jīvo brahmaiva nāparah) 梵 梵是唯一的、全部的、唯一的真实,而且是尼古那(Nirguna),完全無屬性、無形像。除了无形、无相、无属性的不二的梵(Brahman),没有任何一切。梵没有性质、没有形状,是自有、绝对及不灭。 在解釋宇宙和梵,最常用的例子,一条绳子被误以为是蛇;蛇是瀰坦(mityam),绳子是薩坦(satyam)。同理其实尼古那(Nirguna)的梵(Brahman)才是唯一的薩坦(satyam),只有一梵, 是真理、智慧、极乐的不二自我,而宇宙只是瀰坦(mityam)。例子總是有缺陷的。因為一條蛇和一條繩子都是有形象的,而且形象差不多,绳子被当成是蛇的例子只是想说明一样东西是可以被误以为是另一样东西。 所以,最高的比喻就是夢的比喻。整个充满多元性的,有形象、有屬性的宇宙,仅仅是好像梦和梦里的事物一般“出现”了,而不是真的产生或创造了。當然這不是指梵(Brahman)做夢了,只是講明宇宙就如夢一般僅僅“出現”了。 不二论不应该被视作唯心主义哲学(idealism),唯心主義哲學認為因為主體的緣故所以有客體。但是不二論說的是:除了梵(不二的自我,真我)以外什麽都沒有,除了這唯一的主體,什麽都沒有。 梵我同一 不能误以为不二论说我们就是神。不二论从来没有说我们“我是神”,或我们都是神;只说过我们是“梵”。同一个真我,只有一个真我,梵文是阿特曼(Atman)。由于阿特曼是尼古那(Nirguna),没有属性无形象,绝对如一,不做任何事情,完全不变恒定,所以也叫梵(Brahman)。“我是梵”的意义就是这样。即使博伽梵至尊主,也是我是,只有梵是唯一的真实,任何萨古那(saguna)都是像梦和梦里的事物一样仅仅是“出现”(appear)了。 以为不二论否定人格神是种误解,不二论说终极而言,人格神与一切都是假的;以为不二论教导“与神天合一”或者成为“神”都是一种常见的误读;事实上,不二论说无论是否与神合体,“个体我”(Jivatman)与“至尊我”(paratman)其实都是同一个“我”(atman),那就是唯一的至高实体“梵”(brahman),而一般人之所以没有觉悟到,是因为“梵”本身的幻力(maya),所蒙蔽,但是,神和不二论的上师都觉悟到“梵我同一”,这就是“不二”(Advaita)。 既然唯一的真实是阿特曼(Atman)或“真我”,除了阿特曼别无它物,所以就无所谓的“合一”和“分离”。因为阿特曼是尼古那(Nirguna)没有属性无形象,绝对如一,不做任何事情,完全不变恒定,整个萨古那(saguna)的总和就好像梦和梦里的事物一样仅仅是“出现”了,而不是真实的,真实的是尼古那(Nirguna)的阿特曼(Atman)。只有阿特曼(Atman)除此之外别无它物,所以何来的“合一”呢? 摩耶 巴克提运动的倡导者们认为摩耶是与神不同的另一个实体,并且是神的一位仆人;与此不同,不二论教导摩耶(Maya)并非一个真正存在的实体,而是唯一的实体“梵”的一种幻力。整个萨古那(saguna),都仅仅是梦幻一般,就像我们作的梦一样,而摩耶则是类似我们做梦的能力,而不是梵以外有一种叫摩耶的能量迷惑了梵。不过例子总是有缺陷的,其实梵(Brahman)或真我(Atman)并不做任何事情,不做梦。借着修行觉悟到“我是梵(Aham Brahmasmi)”,那么就会像你醒来后发现“梦里的狮子怎么来的”这个问题一样,“多元性怎么来的”这个问题也是一个不成立的问题;觉悟到“我是梵”,就没有时空、万物和宇宙等等,因为摩耶消失(类似梦消失),梦里的一切消失一样,整个萨古那(多元性有属性有形)都会消失;梵是尼古那(nirguna),意思是“无形无相无像无属性无方位无格局”,绝对的一,真实。 因与果 果(kārya)与因(kāraṇa)在吠陀中是重要的讨论课题。 因分成两种: Nimitta kāraṇatva — 效果因,例如陶匠是「效果因」,因为陶器由他制成。 Upādāna kāraṇatva — 物质因,例如泥土是「物质因」,因为陶器由泥土造成。 不二论认为,梵是事物的效果因,也是物质因。同时,不二论又认为「果无异于因,但因有别于果」(Kārya-kāraṇa ananyatva)。 上師的必须性 依照商羯羅和所有不二论上师的传统,如果要学习不二论,必须接受上師的引导;师徒传系内的所有上師,都只重复着之前所有上師的教导,这个教导也就是韦达传系的第一位上師大自在天或博伽梵的教导。 Srotriya — 上師一定是学习并授教于吠陀经典与师徒传系 Brahmanistha — 已经觉悟到“梵我如一” 《蒙达卡奥义书 1.2.12》 追随者一定要服务上師,以及谦卑地提出所有的問題以此能消除所有的疑惑。《博伽梵歌4.34》 师徒传承 नारायणं पद्मभुवं वशिष्ठं शक्तिं च तत्पुत्रं पराशरं च व्यासं शुकं गौडपादं महान्तं गोविन्दयोगीन्द्रं अथास्य शिष्यम् श्री शंकराचार्यं अथास्य पद्मपादं च हस्तामलकं च शिष्यम् तं तोटकं वार्त्तिककारमन्यान् अस्मद् गुरून् सन्ततमानतोऽस्मि अद्वैत गुरु परंपरा स्तोत्रम् nārāyanam padmabhuvam vasishtam saktim ca tat-putram parāśaram ca vyāsam śukam gauḍapāda mahāntam govinda yogīndram athāsya śiṣyam śri śankarācāryam athāsya padmapādam ca hastāmalakam ca śiṣyam tam trotakam vārtikakāram-anyān asmad gurūn santatamānato’smi Advaita-Guru-Paramparā-Stotram 这是一首关于不二论的师徒传系( guru parampara)的诗节 。从拿拉央纳(nArAyaNa)到商羯羅直到现今的上師们。 只有比较重要的典范师会依次地列在典范师简表: 拿拉央纳(nArAyaNa) 大梵天王(brahma) 外士斯塔(vasishTha)【生于大梵天王的意念】 萨克提(Sakti)【外士斯塔的儿子】 帕拉萨拉(parASara)【萨克提的儿子】 维亚萨(vyAsa)【帕拉萨拉的儿子】 苏卡(Suka)【维亚萨的儿子】 高帕达(gauDapAda) 哥文达巴嘎瓦帕德(govinda bhagavatpAda) 商羯羅(Adi-SankarAcArya) 韦丹塔不二论的师徒传系从神传(Daiva-Parampar)到圣传(Rshi-Parampara)到 manava-parampara。从神传(Daiva-Parampar)到圣传(Rshi-Parampara)的时期的传记在《奥义书》里有详细的记录,尤其是在神传时期的天神们在希瓦(Siva)和拿拉央纳(Narayana)那里接受教导的对话过程。 不二论修院 阿迪商卡尔创办了四所修院,分布在印度四个地方,目的是为了让后人能接触到不二论的正统,四所修院有在世的商卡尔,分别都是阿迪商卡尔的继承人,保证传承的正统。这四所修院分别是: Govardhana Pīṭhaṃ、Śārada Pīṭhaṃ Aham brahmāsmi 、Dvāraka Pīṭhaṃ 、Jyotirmaṭha Pīṭhaṃ 另外,有很多其他的修院作为这四所修院的分支;也有不少只是周游各地而没有固定住所的弃绝僧团体,自认为附属于四所主要修院的其中一所。 达萨纳米传统 除了固定运作的不二论修院,还有达萨纳米传统(Dashanami Sampradaya)。与修院的阿查亚典范师不同,达萨纳米传统的古茹们并不固定在某一个修院进行修院内的传统事务运作,而是周游各地传播不二论,其中最著名的包括Sankhesvar, Virupaksha (Hampi), Kolhapur (Karavir pITham), Sivaganga, Sakatapuram 等等。 不二论的历史 不二论并非由施瑞阿迪商卡尔所创立,这种误解也只存在于某些近代的在西方传教的印度教团体的坊间;施瑞阿迪商卡尔只是他是最集大成者。不二论作为韦丹塔,韦丹塔字面意思是“韦达经典的终极结论”,不二论的历史就是和韦达经典一样久远。在印度教传统当中,韦达经典分为天启圣量(Sutri)和境况性经典(Smirthi)两大类,天启圣量才是作为韦达经典的最高权威本身;譬如说如果境况性经典和天启圣量内容有冲突,那么只需要理会天启圣量。作为天启圣量的四韦达和奥义书都直接地详尽描述了不二论的教导,而在境况性经典当中则是作为最主要的部分被讲述着。 Advaita, Advaita Vedanto aŭ Advaita Vedanta (en sanskrito: अद्वैत वेदान्त, IAST: Advaita Vedānta, laŭvorte, "ne-dueco") estas skolo de Hindua filozofio kaj de hinduismo, kaj origine konata kiel Puruṣavāda,[1][2] estas klasika sistemo de spirita realigo en la hindia tradicio.[3] La termino Advaita referencas al la ideo ke provizoraj "aferoj" estas finfine nerealaj, aperoj de Brahmo, kio estas nure realo; kaj ke la vero mem, atmo, ne estas diferenca el Brahmo.[4][5][6] La sekvantoj de tiu skolo estas konataj kiel Advaita Vedantin-oj, aŭ ĝuste Advait-anoj,[7] kaj ankaŭ kiel Maĝavad-anoj, simile al Madhyamaka Budhismo,[8][9][10] rilate al la fenomena mondo kiel simpla apero de plureco, spertita tra la sent-impresoj de nescio (avidĝa), nome iluzio supertrudita (adhĝāsa) sur la nura realo de Brahmo.[11] Ili serĉas spiritan liberigon tra agnosko de tiu iluzieco de la fenomena mondo kaj akiro de la vidĝā (kono)[12] de la propra vera identeco kiel Atman, kaj de identeco de Atman kaj Brahman.[13][14][15] Advaita Vedanta havas siajn radikojn el la plej malnovaj Upaniŝadoj. Ĝi baziĝas sur tri tekstaj fontoj nome la "Prasthanatraĝi". Ĝi havigas "unuecan interpreton de la tuta korpuso de la Upaniŝadoj",[16] de la "Brahma Sutra", kaj de Bagavada Gito.[17][18] Advaita Vedanta estas la plej antikva estanta sub-skolo de Vedanto, kiu estas unu el la ses ortodoksaj (āstika) Hinduaj filozofioj (darśana). Kvankam ties radikoj venas el la 1a jarmilo a.K., la plej elstara reprezentanto de la Advaita Vedanta estas konsiderata de la tradicio la 8-a-jarcenta fakulo Adi-Ŝankaro.[19][20][21] Advaita Vedanta emfazas Jivanmukti, nome ideo ke mokŝa (libereco, liberigo) estas atingebla en tiu ĉi vivo kontraste al la aliaj hindiaj filozofioj kiuj emfazas videhamukti, aŭ mokŝa post la morto.[22][23] La skolo uzas konceptojn kiel Brahmo, Atmo, Maĝa (iluzio, Avidĝa, meditado kaj aliaj kiuj troviĝas en la gravaj hindiaj religiaj tradicioj,[18][24][25] sed interpretas ilin laŭ sia propra vojo al siaj teorioj de "mokŝa".[26][27] Advaita Vedanta estas unu el la plej studitaj kaj plej influaj skoloj de klasika hindia pensaro.[28][29][30] Multaj fakuloj priskribas ĝin kiel formo de monismo,[31][32][33] dum aliaj priskribas la Advaita filozofion kiel neduisma.[34][35] Advaita estas konsiderata filozofio aŭ spirita vojo pli ol religio, ĉar ĝi ne postulas de la sekvantoj esti partikulara kredo aŭ sekto.[36][37][38] Advaita influis kaj estis influita de variaj tradicioj kaj tekstoj de Hinduaj filozofioj kiel Sánkhja, Jogo, Njája, aliaj sub-skoloj de Vedanto, nome Viŝnuismo, Ŝivismo, la Puranoj, la "Agama", same kiel sociaj movadoj kiel la Bhakti movado.[39][40][41] Trans Hinduismo, Advaita Vedanto interagadis kaj disvolviĝis kun la aliaj tradicioj de Hindio kiel Ĝajnismo kaj Budhismo.[42] La tekstoj de Advaita Vedanto eksponas ampleksan gamon de temoj el idealismo, inklude iluziismon, al realismaj aŭ preskaŭ realismaj sintenoj esprimitaj en la furaj verkoj de Ŝankara.[43] En nuntempo, ties vidpunktoj aperas en variaj nov-vedantaj movadoj.[44] Ĝi estis konsiderata kiel paradigma ekzemplo de Hindua spiriteco.[45][46] Portala ikono Portalo pri Hinduismo Notoj ↑ (Novembro 2017) “Puruṣavāda: A Pre-Śaṅkara Monistic Philosophy as Critiqued by Mallavādin”, Journal of Indian Philosophy 45 (5), p. 939–959. doi:10.1007/s10781-017-9329-z. ↑ p. 941 "Puruṣavāda appears a preferred terminology in the early periods, before the time of Sankara." Vidu ankaŭ Purusha. ↑ Deutsch 1988, p. 4, Citaĵo: "Advaita Vedanta is more than a philosophical system, as we understand these terms in the West today; it is also a practical guide to spiritual experience and is intimately bound up with spiritual experience.". ↑ Deutsch 1973, p.3, noto 2. ↑ The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions ↑ Sangeetha Menon, Advaita Vedanta, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy ↑ Sthaneshwar Timalsina. (2008) Consciousness in Indian Philosophy: The Advaita Doctrine of 'Awareness Only'. Routledge, p. 137–138. ISBN 978-1-135-97092-5. ↑ David N. Lorenzen (eld.) (2015), A dialogue between a christian an a Hindu about religion, El Colegio de Mexico AC ↑ Robert D. Baird (1986), Swami Bhativedanta and the Bhagavd Gita As It Is. In: Robert Neil Minor (ed,), Modern Indian Interpreters of the Bhagavad Gita, SUNY Press ↑ Goswami Abhay Charan Bhaktivedanta (1956) Shri Krishna' The Supreme 'Vedantist Alirita la 2an de aŭgusto 2020. ↑ Swami Vireshwarananda (1936), Adhyasa or Superimposition ↑ Kanamura 2004. ↑ Comans 2000, p. 183. ↑ Deutsch 1973, pp. 48–52. ↑ Mayeda 2006, pp. 78–79. ↑ Nakamura 1950a, p. 112. ↑ Grimes 1990, pp. 6–7. ↑ 18,0 18,1 Sangeetha Menon (2012), Advaita Vedanta, IEP ↑ Olivelle 1992, pp. x–xi, 8–10, 17–18. ↑ Stephen Phillips (1998), Classical Indian Metaphysics, Motilal Banarsidass, (ISBN 978-8120814899), p. 332 noto 68 ↑ Nakamura 1950, pp. 221, 680. ↑ Sharma 2007, p. 4. ↑ Fort 1998, pp. 114–120. ↑ Jacqueline G. Suthren Hirst. (2005) Samkara's Advaita Vedanta: A Way of Teaching. Routledge, p. 6, 38–39, 60–63, 83–84. ISBN 978-1-134-25441-5. ↑ Bina Gupta. (1995) Perceiving in Advaita Vedānta: Epistemological Analysis and Interpretation. Motilal Banarsidass, p. 54–55, 66–68, 74–76, 246–247. ISBN 978-81-208-1296-3. ↑ Sharma 1995, pp. 8–14, 31–34, 44–45, 176–178. ↑ Fost 1998, pp. 387–405. ↑ Indich 2000, p. vii. ↑ Fowler 2002, pp. 240–243. ↑ Brannigan 2009, p. 19, Citaĵo: "Advaita Vedanta is the most influential philosophical system in Hindu thought.". ↑ Sangeetha Menon (2012), Advaita Vedanta, IEP; Citaĵo: "The essential philosophy of Advaita is an idealist monism, and is considered to be presented first in the Upaniṣads and consolidated in the Brahma Sūtra by this tradition." ↑ King 1995, p. 65; Citaĵo: "The prevailing monism of the Upanishads was developed by the Advaita Vedanta to its ultimate extreme".. ↑ JN Mohanty (1980), "Understanding some Ontological Differences in Indian Philosophy", Journal of Indian Philosophy, Volume 8, Issue 3, p. 205, Citaĵo: "Nyaya-Vaiseshika is realistic; Advaita Vedanta is idealistic. The former is pluralistic, the latter monistic." ↑ Deutsch 1988, p. 3. ↑ Joseph Milne (1997), "Advaita Vedanta and typologies of multiplicity and unity: An interpretation of nondual knowledge", International Journal of Hindu Studies, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp. 165–188 ↑ Doniger, Wendy. (2013) On Hinduism. ISBN 978-9382277071. OCLC 853310279. ↑ Advaita Philosophy (en-US). Alirita 23a de majo 2019. ↑ What Kind of Religion is Vedanta? (en-US). Alirita 23a de majo 2019. ↑ Novetzke 2007, pp. 255–272. ↑ Goodall 1996, p. xli. ↑ Davis 2014, pp. 13, 167 kun noto 21. ↑ Nakamura 1950, p. 691. ↑ Nicholson 2010, p. 68. ↑ King 2002, pp. 119–133. ↑ Arvind Sharma. (2006) A Guide to Hindu Spirituality. World Wisdom, p. 38–43, 68–75. ISBN 978-1-933316-17-8. ↑ Richard King. (2013) Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East". Routledge, p. 128–132. ISBN 978-1-134-63234-3. Bibliografio Brannigan, Michael (2009), Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0739138465 Comans, Michael (2000), The Method of Early Advaita Vedānta: A Study of Gauḍapāda, Śaṅkara, Sureśvara, and Padmapāda, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Davis, Richard (2014), Ritual in an Oscillating Universe: Worshipping Siva in Medieval India, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691603087 Deutsch, Eliot (1988), Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 0-88706-662-3 Deutsch, Eliot (1973), Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-0271-4 Fort, Andrew O. (1998), Jivanmukti in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita and Neo-Vedanta, SUNY Press Fowler, Jeaneane D (2002), Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Hinduism, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723936 Goodall, Dominic (1996), Hindu Scriptures, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520207783 Grimes, John A. (1990), The seven great untenables: Sapta-vidhā anupapatti, Motilal Banarsidass Indich, William (2000), Consciousness in Advaita Vedanta, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812512 King, Richard (1995), Early Advaita Vedānta and Buddhism: The Mahāyāna Context of the Gauḍapādīya-kārikā, SUNY Press King, Richard (2002), Orientalism and Religion: Post-Colonial Theory, India and "The Mystic East", Routledge Mayeda, Sengaku (2006), "An Introduction to the Life and Thought of Sankara", in Mayeda, Sengaku (ed.), A Thousand Teachings: The Upadeśasāhasrī of Śaṅkara, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120827714 Nakamura, Hajime (1950a), A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy. Part One (1990 Reprint), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited Nakamura, Hajime (1950), A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy. Part Two (2004 Reprint), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited Nicholson, Andrew J. (2010), [ Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press Novetzke, Christian (2007). "Bhakti and Its Public, International Journal of Hindu Studies". 11 (3). Olivelle, Patrick (1992), The Samnyasa Upanisads, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195070453 Sharma, Arvind (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820272 Sharma, Arvind (1995), The Philosophy of Religion and Advaita Vedanta, Penn State University Press, ISBN 978-0271028323 Advaita Vedanta é uma das três escolas de Vedanta do pensamento monista hindu. A palavra Vedanta vem de "Vedas - livros sagrados da antiga Índia" e "anta - final", ou seja, é a culminação dos Vedas, a parte final e mais avançada dos Vedas. Há ainda um outra possibilidade de entendimento para o termo, significando a associação de textos complementares "ao final" do corpo principal dos Vedas. Os textos complementares em questão seriam as Upanishads. Advaita literalmente significa "não dois", não dual; é um sistema filosófico que sustenta a não realidade, ou ilusão, de tudo aquilo que não seja a Consciência Suprema, Eterna e Infinita (Brahman). O Vedanta caracteriza Brahman como realidade (Sat), consciência (Cit) e beatitude (Ānanda).[1] O consolidador do Advaita Vedanta foi Shankara (788-820). Shankara expôs suas teorias baseadas amplamente nos ensinamentos dos Upanishads e de seu guru Gaudapada. Através da análise da consciência experimental, ele expôs a natureza relativa do mundo e estabeleceu a realidade não dual ou Brahman, na qual Atman (a alma individual) ou Brahman (a realidade última) são absolutamente identificadas.[2] Índice 1	Princípios 1.1	A unidade da existência 1.2	O conceito de Maya 1.3	Karma e reencarnação 1.4	A harmonia das religiões 2	Ver também 3	Ligações externas 4	Referências Princípios A unidade da existência A unidade de existência é um dos grandes temas da Vedanta e um pilar essencial da sua filosofia. De acordo com ela, a unidade é a canção da vida; é o grande tema que subjaz às ricas variações que existem em todo o cosmos. O que quer que vemos e o que experimentamos é apenas uma manifestação dessa eterna unidade. A divindade no âmago do nosso ser é a mesma divindade que ilumina o sol, a lua e as estrelas. Não há nenhum lugar onde nós, infinitos em nossa natureza, não existimos. Embora o conceito de unicidade possa ser intelectualmente atraente, sem dúvida é muito difícil colocá-lo em prática. Não há nenhuma dificuldade em sentir essa unidade com os grandes e nobres seres ou com aqueles que já amamos. Também não é difícil experimentarmos um sentimento de unidade com as árvores, com o mar e com céu. Mas a maioria de nós se recusa a experimentar a unidade com seres repelentes tais como a barata ou o rato – sem falar no antipático colega de trabalho a quem mal conseguimos tolerar. No entanto, é justamente aí que os ensinamentos da Vedanta são aplicáveis para perceber que todos estes múltiplos aspectos da criação estão unidos em e através da divindade. O Ser que está dentro de mim, o Atman, é o mesmo Ser que está dentro de você, não importa se o “você” em questão é um santo, um assassino, um gato, uma mosca, uma árvore, ou um motorista irritante com quem cruzamos no trânsito. “O Ser está em toda parte”, diz o Isha Upanishad. “Aquele que vê todos os seres no Ser, e o Ser em todos os seres, não odeia ninguém. Para quem vê a unicidade em todos os lugares, como pode haver decepção ou tristeza? ” Todo o medo e toda a infelicidade surgem de nosso senso de separação da grande unidade cósmica, a rede do ser que nos envolve. “Existe o medo do segundo/do outro”, diz o Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. A Vedanta afirma que a dualidade, o nosso sentimento de separatividade em relação ao resto da criação, é sempre um equívoco, uma vez que implica na existência de algo além de Deus. Não pode haver nenhum outro. “Esta grande pregação, a unidade de todas as coisas, que faz de nós um com tudo o que existe, é a grande lição a aprender”, disse Swami Vivekananda um século atrás. De acordo com a Vedanta, o Ser é a essência do universo, a essência de todas as almas. Você é uno com o universo. Aquele que diz que é diferente dos outros, mesmo que apenas por um fio de cabelo, torna-se imediatamente infeliz. A felicidade pertence àquele que conhece essa unidade, que sabe que ele é uno com o universo. O conceito de Maya A Vedanta declara que nossa natureza real é divina: pura, perfeita, eternamente livre. Não temos que nos tornar Brahman, nós somos Brahman. Nosso verdadeiro Ser, o Atman, é um com Brahman. Mas, se nossa natureza real é divina, por que, então, estamos tão incrivelmente inconscientes disso? A resposta para essa pergunta está no conceito de maya, ou ignorância. Maya é o véu que encobre nossa natureza real e a natureza real do mundo à nossa volta. Maya é fundamentalmente insondável: não sabemos por que ela existe e não sabemos quando ela começou. O que realmente sabemos é que, como qualquer forma de ignorância, maya deixa de existir com o raiar do conhecimento, o conhecimento da nossa natureza divina. Brahman é a verdade real da nossa existência: em Brahman, vivemos, movemos-nos e existimos. “Tudo isto é verdadeiramente Brahman”, declaram os Upanishads – as escrituras que compõem a filosofia Vedanta. O mundo mutável que vemos à nossa volta pode ser comparado às imagens que se movem na tela do cinema: sem a tela imutável por trás, não pode haver filme. Da mesma forma, por trás deste mundo mutável, é o imutável Brahman – o substrato da existência – quem dá ao mundo sua realidade. Porém, para nós, essa realidade é condicionada, como um espelho deformado, por tempo, espaço e causalidade – a lei de causa e efeito. Além disso, nossa visão da realidade ainda é obscurecida pela identificação equivocada: nós nos identificamos com o corpo, a mente e o ego, em vez de nos identificarmos com o Atman, o Ser divino. Essa percepção equivocada original cria mais ignorância e dor, num efeito dominó: ao nos identificarmos com o corpo e a mente, tememos a doença, a velhice e a morte; ao nos identificarmos com o ego, sofremos de raiva, ódio e centenas de outros tormentos. Ainda assim, nada disso afeta nossa natureza real, o Atman. Maya pode ser comparada às nuvens que encobrem o sol: o sol permanece no céu, porém a nuvem densa nos impede de vê-lo. Quando as nuvens se dispersam, tornamo-nos conscientes de que o sol lá esteve o tempo todo. Nossas nuvens – maya, que surge como egoísmo, ódio, ganância, luxúria, raiva, ambição – são sopradas para longe quando meditamos sobre nossa natureza verdadeira, quando nos ocupamos de ações altruístas e quando agimos e pensamos consistentemente nas formas de manifestarmos nossa real natureza: isto é, por meio de veracidade, pureza, contentamento, autocontrole e paciência. Essa purificação mental afasta as nuvens de maya e deixa nossa natureza divina brilhar. Shankara, o grande sábio-filósofo da Índia do século sétimo, usava o exemplo da corda e da cobra para ilustrar o conceito de maya. Andando por uma rua escura, um homem vê uma cobra; seu coração bate mais forte, sua pulsação acelera. Examinando mais de perto, a “cobra” vem a ser um pedaço de corda enrolada. Uma vez que a ilusão se desfaz, a cobra desaparece para sempre. Assim, andando pela rua escura da ignorância, vemos a nós mesmos como criaturas mortais, e, à nossa volta, o universo do nome e da forma, o universo condicionado por tempo, espaço e causalidade. Ficamos cientes de nossas limitações, escravidão e sofrimento. “Examinando mais de perto”, tanto a criatura mortal quanto o universo não são outra coisa senão Brahman. Uma vez que a ilusão se desfaz, nossa mortalidade e também o universo desaparecem para sempre. Vemos Brahman existindo em todo lugar e em todas as coisas. Karma e reencarnação O sofrimento humano é um dos mistérios mais constrangedores da religião. Por que pessoas inocentes sofrem? Por que Deus permite o mal? Deus não pode fazer nada ou Ele escolhe não fazer? E se Ele decide não fazer, isso significa que é cruel? Ou simplesmente indiferente? A Vedanta tira o problema da jurisdição de Deus e firmemente o entrega a nós.  Não podemos culpar nem Deus nem demônio. Nada nos acontece pelo capricho de algum agente externo: somos nós mesmos os responsáveis pelo que a vida nos traz; todos estamos colhendo os resultados de ações anteriores, nesta vida ou em vidas passadas. Para entender melhor isso precisamos primeiro entender a lei do karma. A palavra karma vem do verbo sânscrito kri, fazer. Apesar de karma significar ação, significa também o resultado da ação. Qualquer ação que tenhamos feito ou qualquer pensamento que tenhamos tido criaram uma impressão, tanto em nossas mentes quanto no universo ao redor de nós. O universo nos devolve o que demos a ele: “Colhemos o que plantamos”, disse Cristo. Bons pensamentos e ações criam bons efeitos, maus pensamentos e ações criam efeitos maus. Sempre que realizamos alguma ação e sempre que temos algum pensamento, uma impressão – um tipo de marca sutil – é criada na mente. Essas impressões ou marcas são conhecidas como samskaras. Algumas vezes somos conscientes desse processo de impressão; mas, com a mesma frequência deixamos de ser. Quando ações e pensamentes se repetem, as marcas se tornam mais profundas. A combinação dessas “marcas” – samskaras – cria nosso caráter individual e também influencia fortemente nossos pensamentos e ações subsequentes.  Se sentimos raiva com facilidade, por exemplo, criamos uma mente raivosa predisposta a reagir com raiva em vez de agir com paciência ou compreensão. Da mesma forma que a água ganha força quando se dirige a um canal estreito, também as marcas na mente criam canais de padrões de comportamento que se tornam extraordinariamente difíceis de resistir ou reverter. Mudar um hábito mental arraigado torna-se literalmente uma batalha morro acima. Se nossos pensamentos predominantes são de bondade, amor e compaixão, nosso caráter reflete isso e esses mesmos pensamentos retornarão a nós cedo ou tarde. Se enviamos pensamentos de ódio, raiva ou mesquinhez, esses pensamentos também voltarão a nós. Nossos pensamentos e ações agem mais como bumerangues do que como flechas – eles acabam encontrando o caminho de volta. Os efeitos do karma podem vir imediatamente, mais tarde na vida ou em uma outra vida; o que é absolutamente certo, contudo, é que em algum momento aparecerão. Até que se alcance a liberação, vivemos e morremos nos limites da lei do karma, o grilhão da causa e do efeito. O que acontece na morte se não atingimos a liberação? Quando uma pessoa morre, somente o corpo físico “morre”. A mente, que contém as impressões mentais da pessoa, continua após a morte do corpo. Quando a pessoa renasce, é um novo corpo físico acompanhado pela antiga mente com as impressões ou “marcas” das vidas anteriores que “nasce”. Quando o ambiente favorece, esses samskaras manifestam-se outra vez na nova vida. Felizmente, esse processo não continua eternamente. Quando atingimos a realização de Deus ou autorrealização, a lei do karma é transcendida, o Ser abandona sua identificação com o corpo e mente e reconquista sua liberdade, perfeição e bem-aventurança originais. Quando analisamos friamente o mundo a nossa volta, ele não parece fazer muito sentido. Se julgarmos pelas aparências, pode parecer que muitas pessoas escaparam do laço do destino: muitas pessoas más morreram em paz em suas camas. Pior do que isso, pessoas boas e nobres sofreram sem causa aparente, e tiveram sua bondade retribuída com ódio e tortura. Pensem no Holocausto; pensem no abuso de crianças. Se olharmos apenas a superfície, o universo parece absurdo no melhor dos casos, e perverso no pior. Mas isso acontece porque não estamos olhando profundamente; estamos apenas vendo o período desta vida, não as vidas que a precederam nem as vidas que poderão vir. Quando vemos uma calamidade ou um triunfo, estamos apenas vendo uma imagem congelada de um filme muito, muito longo. Não podemos ver nem o começo nem o final do filme. O que com certeza sabemos, contudo, é que cada um, não importa o quão depravado possa ser, terminará, no curso de muitas vidas e sem dúvida de muito sofrimento, por realizar sua própria natureza divina. Esse é o inevitável final feliz do filme. A lei do karma não faz da Vedanta uma filosofia fria e fatalista? De forma alguma. A Vedanta confere poder pessoal e, ao mesmo tempo, profunda compaixão. Primeiro, se criamos – por nossos próprios pensamentos e ações – a vida que estamos tendo hoje, temos também o poder de criar a vida que teremos amanhã. Quer gostemos ou não, quer queiramos ou não assumir a responsabilidade, isso é o que estamos fazendo a cada passo do caminho. A Vedanta não nos autoriza a por a culpa em qualquer outra coisa: cada pensamento e ação constrói nossa experiência futura. A lei do karma implica então que devemos ser indiferentes em relação aos outros pois, afinal, eles apenas estão obtendo o que merecem? Definitivamente, não. Se o karma de uma pessoa a faz sofrer, temos uma oportunidade para aliviar aquele sofrimento de qualquer forma que nos for possível: agindo assim cria-se bom karma. Não precisamos ser indevidamente heróicos, mas podemos sempre oferecer uma ajuda ou ao menos uma palavra gentil. Se escolhermos não fazer o que quer que esteja em nosso limitado alcance para suavizar a dor dos que estão à nossa volta, estamos delineando um mau karma para nós mesmos. Na verdade, estamos apenas nos machucando. A unidade é a lei do universo, e essa verdade é a real raiz de todos os atos de amor e compaixão. O Atman, meu verdadeiro Ser, é o mesmo Espírito que habita em todos; não pode haver dois Atmans. A consciência não pode ser dividida; é todo-penetrante. Meu Atman e seu Atman não podem ser diferentes. Por essa razão, a Vedanta diz: ame o seu próximo como a si mesmo pois o seu próximo É você mesmo. A harmonia das religiões “A Verdade é uma só, os sábios a chamam por diversos nomes,” declarou há milhares de anos o Rig Veda, um dos mais antigos textos da Vedanta. Todos buscamos a verdade, afirma a Vedanta, e essa verdade aparece com numerosos nomes e formas. A verdade – a realidade espiritual – permanece a verdade, embora surja com diferentes disfarces e se aproxime de nós vinda de várias direções. “Qualquer que seja o caminho no qual as pessoas viajem, esse é o Meu caminho,” diz o Bhagavad Gita. “Não importa por onde andem, todos os caminhos levam a Mim.” Se todas as religiões são verdadeiras, por que então tanta luta? Principalmente em razão da política, e das distorções que as culturas e mentes humanas limitadas impõem sobre a realidade espiritual. O que geralmente é considerado “religião” é uma mistura de coisas essenciais e não essenciais. Como Ramakrishna disse, todas as escrituras contém uma mescla de areia e de açúcar. Precisamos separar o açúcar e deixar a areia: devemos extrair a essência da religião – se a chamamos de união com Deus ou de autorrealização – e deixar o resto para trás. Abracemos tudo aquilo que nos ajude a manifestar nossa divindade, e evitemos tudo que nos afasta desse ideal. As carnificinas infligidas ao mundo em nome da religião têm muito pouco a ver com a genuína religião. As pessoas lutam por doutrinas e dogmas; não ouvimos falar de alguém que tenha sido assassinado na tentativa de conseguir a união divina! Uma “guerra religiosa” é, na realidade, egoísmo enfurecido em larga escala. Como diria Swami Prabhavananda, fundador da Vedanta Society of Southern California – USA,  sorrindo: “Se você colocar Jesus, Buda e Maomé juntos numa mesma sala, eles se abraçarão; mas, se colocar seus seguidores juntos, eles poderão matar-se uns aos outros!” A verdade é uma só, mas aparece filtrada pela limitada mente humana. Essa mente vive em uma cultura particular, tem sua própria experiência do mundo e vive em um ponto da história particular. A Realidade infinita é então processada através das limitações de espaço, tempo, causalidade, e, além disso, processada através dos  limites humanos da compreensão e da linguagem. As manifestações da verdade – escrituras, sábios e profetas – necessariamente irão variar de era para era e de cultura para cultura. A luz, quando é refratada através de um prisma, aparece em várias cores, quando observada de diferentes ângulos. Porém, a luz permanece sempre a mesma e pura luz.  Isso também é verdade quando nos referimos à verdade espiritual. Não queremos dizer que todas as religiões são “quase idênticas”. Isso seria uma afronta à beleza diferenciada e à grandeza individual de cada uma das tradições espirituais do mundo. Dizer que cada religião é igualmente verdadeira e autêntica não significa dizer que uma possa ser substituída por outra, como fazemos com marcas genéricas de aspirina. De acordo com a Vedanta, toda religião tem uma dádiva específica a oferecer à humanidade; toda religião traz consigo um ponto de vista único, que enriquece o mundo. O cristianismo enfatiza o amor e o sacrifício; o judaísmo, o valor da sabedoria espiritual e da tradição. O islamismo enfatiza a fraternidade universal e a igualdade, enquanto que o budismo advoga a compaixão e a atenção plena. A tradição nativa americana ensina a reverência pela Terra e ao mundo natural que nos rodeia. A Vedanta, ou tradição hindu, enfatiza a unidade da existência e a necessidade da experiência mística direta. As tradições espirituais do mundo são como diferentes peças de um gigantesco quebra-cabeças: cada peça é diferente e cada peça é essencial para completar todo o quadro. Cada peça deve ser honrada e respeitada, enquanto nos mantemos firmes com nossa peça particular do quebra-cabeças. Podemos aprofundar nossa própria espiritualidade e aprender sobre nossa própria tradição, estudando outras crenças. E de forma igualmente importante: estudar bem nossa própria tradição nos tornará mais capazes  de apreciar a verdade das outras tradições. Do mesmo modo que honramos as diversas religiões do mundo e respeitamos seus adeptos, devemos crescer e nos aprofundar em nosso próprio e particular caminho espiritual – qualquer que seja ele. Não devemos explorar um pouquinho de budismo,  um pouquinho de Islamismo e um pouquinho de cristianismo e então tentar um novo prato combinado na semana seguinte. A prática espiritual não é um buffet variado. Se lançarmos cinco variedades de sobremesas num processador de alimentos, o máximo que obteremos será uma miscelânea intragável. Enquanto a Vedanta enfatiza a harmonia das religiões, ela também dá ênfase à necessidade de mergulharmos profundamente na tradição espiritual de nossa escolha, apegando-nos a ela e trabalhando duro. Parafraseando Ramakrishna, se você quer cavar um poço tem de escolher o local e cavar profundamente até alcançar a água. De nada adianta cavar um monte de buracos rasos. Enquanto uma vida espiritual pouco profunda é provavelmente melhor que nenhuma, ela, contudo, não nos leva para onde queremos ir: para a liberdade, para a realização de Deus. Quando escolhemos o caminho espiritual que queremos seguir, devemos segui-lo persistentemente até que alcancemos a meta. O importante é que podemos fazê-lo enquanto não apenas valorizamos outras tradições, mas também enquanto aprendemos  com elas. A Vedanta afirma que todas as religiões contém as mesmas e essenciais verdades, embora  o acondicionamento seja diferente. E isso é bom. Cada ser humano do planeta é único. Nenhum de nós, na verdade, pratica a mesma religião. A mente de cada pessoa é diferente e cada pessoa necessita do seu próprio e único caminho para alcançar o alto da montanha. Alguns caminhos são estreitos, outros são largos. Alguns são sinuosos e difíceis, enquanto outros são seguros e tediosos. No final, todos chegaremos ao topo da montanha. Portanto, não devemos nos preocupar se nossos vizinhos se perderem no percurso. Eles também serão bem-sucedidos. Todos necessitamos de diferentes abordagens que combinem com nossas diferentes naturezas. Apesar das variações exteriores das religiões do mundo, os conteúdos têm mais similaridades que diferenças. Toda religião ensina virtudes morais e éticas similares; todas ensinam a importância da luta espiritual e a necessidade de honrar nossos companheiros seres humanos, como parte dessa luta. ”Assim como diferentes rios têm suas fontes em lugares diversos, mas todos mesclam suas águas às do mar,” diz uma antiga oração sânscrita, “assim também, Ó Senhor, os diferentes caminhos que as pessoas tomam por suas diferentes tendências, embora pareçam diferentes, sinuosos ou retos, todos levam a Ti.”[3] Ver também Dvaita Nagajurna Shânkara Vedanta jñana madhukar Ramana Maharshi Nisargadatta Maharaj Ramakrishna Swami Vivekananda Ligações externas Ramana Maharshi Arunachala-Shiva Website Português sobre Ensinamento do Advaita Vedanta por este grande sábio. Website dedicado a Bhagavan Ramana Maharshi e aos seus ensinamentos - Portugal (em português) satsangeditora.com.br/ Website de Editora de livros na lingua portuguesa, sobre Ensinamentos dos Grandes Mestres Advaitas https://www.vedanta.org.br/vedanta - Site do Ramakrishna Vedanta Ashrama de São Paulo/SP, com explicação dos princípios da Advaita Vedanta Referências BIANCHINI, Flávia. Brahman é Ānanda. Pp. 101-125, in: GNERRE, Maria Lúcia Abaurre; POSSEBON, Fabrício (orgs.). Cultura oriental: língua, filosofia e crença. Vol. 2. João Pessoa: Editora da UFPB, 2012. MARTINS, Roberto de Andrade. Muṇḍaka-Upaniṣad: o conhecimento de Brahman e do Ātman. Rio de Janeiro: Corifeu, 2008. VRAJAPRANA, Pravrajika (2016). VEDANTA: Uma simples introdução. São Paulo: Editora Vedanta Ícone de esboço	Este artigo sobre Hinduísmo é um esboço. Você pode ajudar a Wikipédia expandindo-o. Адвайта веданта (на санскрит: अद्वैत वेदान्त) е подшкола на веданта, една от шестте школи на индуистката философия. Адвайта е монистична система, изложена и разпространена от Ади Шанкарачаря, а за първи път очертана от неговия парамгуру Гаудапада. Адвайта веданта утвърждава единството на атман (душата) и Брахман (Абсолюта, Бог). Ведантическият канон от авторитетни текстове (прастхана трайи), включва Упанишадите, Брахма сутра и Бхагавад гита. Според веданта човек страда от обвързаността си с материалния свят в кръговрата на преражданията (самсара) и негова цел е да постигне освобождение (мокша). Според адвайта познание (джнана) на истинската природа на човека представлява освобождение. Обвързването с материалния свят произлиза от непознаването (авидя) на истинската природа на човека и следователно премахването на невежеството носи освобождение. Истинската природа на човека, неговата същност и душа, е атман, който е идентичен с Върховния дух на вселената, Брахман, Абсолюта. Който познава истинската си природа, не просто интелектуално, а от опит, става дживанмукта, освободен докато е още жив (в тялото). Съдържание 1	Предпоставки 2	Брахман 3	Мая 4	Светът 5	Ишвара 6	Теория на Сътворението 7	Махавакя 8	Бележки 9	Вижте също Предпоставки Учителят по адвайта веданта трябва да има следните качества (Мундака упанишад 1.2.12): 1. Стотрия – трябва да е учен в свещените писания. 2. Брахманища – букв. „установен в Брахман“, да е осъзнал единството на Брахман с всичко и със себе си. Всеки мумукшу (търсач на мокша) трябва да има следните четири квалификации (сампати), известни като садхана чатуштая сампати (четворните квалификации за духовна практика): 1. Вивека – различаване; способността да се различава между вечното (нитя) и преходното (анитя), реалното и нереалното. 2. Вайрагя – безстрастност; отричането от наслажденията на обектите (артха пхала бхога) на този свят (иха) и на другите светове (амутра) като небето и пр. 3. Шатсампат – шесторните качества: шама (умствено спокойствие), дама (контрол над сетивата), упарати (въздържане от разсейващи светски действия), титикша (издръжливост), шраддха (вяра в Бог, гуру, свещените писания и интуицията си), самадхана (концентриране на ума върху Духовния идеал). 4. Мумукшутва – интензивно желание за освобождение (мокша). Брахман Брахман е, както изпълнителната причина, така и материалната причина на Творението. Според Веданта Брахман е творецът, но също и творението. Вселената не е сътворена ex nihilo, от нищото, а Брахман посредством своята сила на преображение, Мая, се е превърнал в света, без това да променя същинската му природа, която е вечна (сатчитананда, съществуване-съзнание-блаженство). Според Шанкара Бог, Всевишния, или Брахман, е Един, той е цялата и единствена реалност. Всичко, освен Брахман, включително вселената, материалните обекти и индивидите, е илюзия. Брахман е безкраен, вездесъщ, всемогъщ, безформен, трансцендентален, божествената основа на цялото битие. Брахман се описва като нети нети, „нито това, нито това“, защото не може да се ограничи до качествено определение. Той е източникът на това и онова, източникът на силите, веществата, цялото битие, неопределим, основа на всичко, нероден, непроменлив, вечен, отвъд сетивата, Абсолют. Макар да не е вещество, Брахман е основата на материалния свят, който е неговата илюзорна трансформация. Брахман е блестящ като източник на безпределна светлина, той е най-чистото знание. Поради индивидуалното невежество (авидя) Брахман се възприема като материалния свят и неговите обекти. Върховният Брахман няма атрибути и форма. Брахман е неописуем. Най-добрият опит за описание на тази реалност е сатчитананда, битие-съзнание-блаженство. Брахман е хомогенен, той е един без втори (екамеваадвитииям, Чандогя упанишад 6.2.1.), т.е. освен него няма друга реалност. Той обхваща всичко, което съществува и не съществува, всичко мислимо и немислимо, цялото творение и това, което е отвъд творението. Макар Брахман да доказва сам себе си, Шанкара предлага и някои доказателства: Свещените писания Упанишади, Брахма сутра и Бхагавад гита свидетелстват за реалността на Брахман. Всеки човек чувства душата си или атман. Според Шанкара атман е идентичен с Брахман. Светът изглежда добре подреден. Причината за това не може да бъде несъзнателен принцип. Причината трябва да е Брахман. Много хора, постигнали състоянието турия твърдят, че душата им е станала едно с всичко. Георг Фойерщайн резюмира адвайта по следния начин: „Многообразната вселена всъщност е една-единствена реалност. Има едно Велико същество, което мъдреците наричат Брахман, в което живеят безбройните форми на съществуването. Това Велико Същество е пълно съзнание и е самата Същност или Аз (Атман) на всички същества.“ [1] Мая Според Шанкара Мая е сложната сила за създаване на илюзии на Брахман, която причинява възприятието на Брахман като материален свят от отделни форми. Има две основни функции: едната е да „крие“ Брахман от обикновеното човешко възприятие и другата е да представи материалния свят на негово място. Мая също е неописуема, макар че би могло да се каже, че цялата информация, възприемана от сетивата, е Мая, тъй като фундаменталната реалност под сетивните възприятия е скрита. Мая не е нито реална, нито нереална, следователно – неописуема. Тя има за убежище Брахман, но Брахман остава недокоснат от илюзията на Мая, така както фокусникът не може да бъде заблуден от собствения си фокус. Мая е безначална, но може да се превъзмогне посредством познание на Брахман. Едно основно утвърждение в адвайта е: „Който познае Брахман, става Брахман“. Светът Според Шанкара светът не е реален, той е илюзия. Според него: Това, което е вечно, е реално; това, което не е вечно, не е реално. Тъй като светът се създава и унищожава, той не е реален. Истината е непроменлива. Тъй като светът се променя, той не е реален. Това, което е независимо от времето и пространството, е реално. Така, както човек сънува, докато спи, така и докато е буден, вижда един вид свръхсън. Този свят се сравнява със съзнателен сън. Светът е положен върху Брахман, няма независимо съществуване, и следователно е нереален. Светът е нереален, когато е сравнен с Брахман. Докато човек е под влиянието на Мая, светът е реален. Светът не може да е едновременно реален и нереален и следователно Шанкара го класифицира като неописуем. Шанкара дава следните аргументи за това, че светът не е напълно нереален: Ако светът беше нереален, при освобождението на първото човешко същество той би бил унищожен. Светът обаче продължава да съществува, дори и човек да постигне освобождение. Шанкара вярва в извършването на добри действия (карма), което е черта на света. Следователно светът не е нереален. Върховната Реалност Брахман е основата на този свят. Светът е като негово отражение. Следователно не може да бъде напълно нереален. Неистинно е нещо, което се приписва на несъществуващи неща, като Небесен лотос. Светът е нещо логично, което се възприема от сетивата. Ишвара Ишвара (Всевишният, личностният Бог) е възприятие на Брахман, когато човешкият ум е под въздействието на Мая. Ишвара е проявената форма на Брахман, Брахман с Мая. Ишвара е Сагуна Брахман, Брахман с безброй благоприятни качества. Той е създателят, съхранителят и унищожителят на света. Той е личностен и е обект на поклонничество. Той е основата на етиката и разпределя плодовете на действията. Самият той е отвъд заслуги и грехове. Той управлява света посредством Мая, своята божествена сила. Ишвара е господар на Мая и тя е винаги под негов контрол, докато живите същества са подчинени на Мая (поради невежеството си). Това невежество е причината за страданието и греховете в света на смъртните. Ишвара е безкрайно блаженство, а хората са нещастни. Ишвара може да се визуализира и боготвори в човешки форми, като Вишну, Шива или Деви. Според Шанкара света се създава за забавление на Ишвара/Брахман. Той е в неговата природа, така както е в природата на човека да диша. Като доказателство за Ишвара Шанкара цитира шрутите (писанията), но също дава няколко логически доказателства за неговото съществуване: Светът е работа, ефект и следователно трябва да има причина. Тази причина трябва да е Ишвара. Светът има единство, координация и ред, тъй че Създателя му трябва да е интелигентно същество Хората вършат добри и лоши дела и получават плодовете им, в този живот или в следващ. Самите хора не може да си дават сами плодовете, защото никой не би си дал плодовете на греха. Този, който дава плодовете, не може да бъде несъзнателен. Следователно този, който дава, е Ишвара. В сравнение с Върховния Брахман, Ишвара не е реален, но така, както светът е реален на прагматично ниво, така и личностният Бог е реален на прагматично ниво. Вярата и служенето на Бог помагат за успеха и щастието на човек. Всъщност, когато човек мисли за Брахман, той всъщност мисли за Бог, тъй като Брахман е немислим. Теория на Сътворението На относително ниво Шанкара вярва в Сътворението на света посредством Саткарявада. Подобно на философията санкхя, където причината винаги се крие в следствието, а следствието е просто преобразяване на причината. Санкхя обаче вярва в подформа на Саткарявада наречена Париманавада (еволюция), при която причината наистина се превръща в следствие. Вместо това Шанкара вярва във Виваратавада, според която следствието е само привидно преобразяване на причината – подобно на илюзия. В тъмнината човек може да обърка въжето за змия, но това не означава, че въжето се е превърнало в змия. На прагматично ниво се вярва, че вселената е създадена от всевишния Ишвара. Мая е божествената магия на Ишвара, с чиято помощ той създава света. Етапите на Сътворението са заимствани от Упанишадите. Първо Ишвара създава петте фини елемента (етер, въздух, огън, вода и земя). Мая създава етера, въздуха произлиза от етера, огъня – от въздуха, от огъня – водата, от водата – земята. От пропорционалното съчетание на петте фини елемента се раждат грубите елементи, като грубо небе, груб огън и т.н. От тези груби елементи се създава вселената. По време на унищожението тази поредица следва отзад-напред. Шанкара казва, че както от съзнателното човешко същество се образуват несъзнателни обекти, като коса и нокти, така и неживия свят се образува от духовния Ишвара. Махавакя Четирите класически махавакя, или велики изказвания в адвайта, са: 1. प्रज्नानम ब्रह्म (праджнанам брахма). Съзнанието е Брахман. Айтарея упанишад, Риг веда 2. अहम ब्रह्मास्मि (ахам брахмаасми). Аз съм Брахман. Брихадараняка упанишад, Яджур веда 3. तत्त्त्वमसि (Таттвамаси). Ти си това. Чхандогя упанишад, Сама веда 4. अयमात्मा ब्रह्म (Аяматма брахма). Този Атман е Брахман. Мандукя упанишад, Атхарва веда Бележки dvaita (Sanskrit: अद्वैत a-dvaita adj. und n.) ohne Dualität (Dvaita), zweitlos, einig; Nichtdualität, Einheit; eine Bezeichnung für den höchsten Zustand im Hatha Yoga. Advaita bedeutet nichtdualistisch; Nichtdualität, Nichtzweiheit. In der indischen Philosophie steht Advaita für eine nichtdualistische Sichtweise, die auch als Monismus bezeichnet wird. Hier wird im Gegensatz zu dualistischen Anschauungen nur eine letzte Wirklichkeit, ein absolutes Prinzip anerkannt, an dem die gesamte Schöpfung und somit auch jedes Wesen Anteil hat. Shankara Somit gibt es keinen wesentlichen Unterschied zwischen Gott und Mensch, sondern vielmehr deren Wesensidentität. In den unterschiedlichen Schulen des Advaita werden verschiedene Begriffe für das höchste, transzendenten Prinzip verwendet, die vom (unpersönlich vorgestellten) Brahman bis hin zu Bhairava, einem Aspekt Shivas, reichen. Mehr zu Advaita findest du im Hauptartikel Advaita Vedanta. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1	Advaita und Vishishtadvaita 1.1	Die Individuelle Seele 1.2	Moksha - Befreiung 2	Viveka Chudamani - Die höchste Wirklichkeit ist ohne ein Zweites 2.1	Der Himmel bleibt gleich unabhängig vom Wetter 2.2	Der Raum verändert sich nicht 2.3	Bewusstsein ist überall 3	Viveka Chudamani - Ich bin das nichtduale Brahman 3.1	Werde dir deiner Selbst bewusst 4	Der spirituelle Name Advaita 5	Sukadev über Advaita 6	Advaita in der Hatha Yoga Pradipika 7	Advaita अद्वैत advaita Aussprache 8	Siehe auch 9	Literatur 10	Weblinks 11	Seminare 11.1	Jnana Yoga und Philosophie 11.2	Indische Schriften 11.3	Meditation 12	Multimedia 12.1	Sukadev über Advaita 12.2	Jnana Yoga und Vedanta - Einführung 12.3	Jnana Yoga und Vedanta - Zusammenfassung 12.4	Vedanta-Geschichten & Jnana Yoga 13	Ähnliche Spirituelle Namen Advaita und Vishishtadvaita Auszug aus dem Buch "Jnana Yoga" von Swami Sivananda (Hrsg.: Divine Life Society, 2007), S. 31-32 Beide Systeme lehren Advaita, Nichtdualität, Monismus. Es bestehen keine fundamental verschiedenen Ansichten, wie es bei Sankya mit Prakriti und Purusha der Fall ist. Es existiert ein allumfassendes Wesen. Während Sri Shankaras Advaita bedingungslos von einem einzigen Wesen spricht, lehrt Sri Ramanujas Doktrin, der Vishishtadvaita, eine qualifizierte Nichtdualität, eine Nichtdualität mit Unterscheidung. Nach Shankara gibt es nur Brahman, und Brahman ist das absolute Eine. Unterscheidung und Vielheit sind Illusion. Nach Ramanuja gibt es ebenso Brahman, doch ist Brahman nicht das absolute Eine, sondern trägt in Sich Elemente der Vielheit, aufgrund deren Es Sich in der Erscheinungswelt manifestiert. Die Vielfalt der Welt mit all ihren Formen der Existenz und individuellen Seelen ist nicht unwirkliche Maya, sondern ein wirklicher Teil Brahmans - der Körper, der das universelle Selbst umhüllt. Shankaras Brahman ist in Sich unpersönlich, eine homogene Anhäufung objektloser Gedanken, alle Eigenschaften überschreitend. Zum persönlichen Gott wird Es erst durch seine Verbindung mit der unwirklichen Maya, so dass, strenggenommen, Shankaras persönlicher Gott, sein Ishvara, etwas nicht Wirkliches ist. Ramanujas Brahman ist vom Wesen her ein persönlicher Gott, der allmächtige und allwissende Herrscher einer realen Welt, die durch Seinen Geist durchdrungen und belebt ist. So ist hier kein Raum für Unterscheidung zwischen Parama Nirguna und Aparama Saguna Brahman, zwischen Brahman und Ishvara. Die Individuelle Seele Adi Shankara Shankaras individuelle Seele ist Brahman insofern, als sie begrenzt ist durch die unwirklichen Upadhis der Maya. Die individuelle Seele Ramanujas ist wirklich individuell. Sie hat sich wahrlich von Brahman gelöst und ist für immer getrennt. Brahman genießt eine separate persönliche Existenz und bleibt eine Persönlichkeit für alle Zeit. Moksha - Befreiung Die Befreiung aus dem Samsara ist nach Shankara, das vollkommene Eingehen der individuellen Seele in Brahman - aufgrund von Befreiung aus der fälschlichen Annahme, die Seele sei verschieden von Brahman. Nach Ramanuja wechselt die Seele von den Leiden des Erdenlebens in eine Art Himmel oder Paradies, wo sie für immer bleibt in ungestörter persönlicher Glückseligkeit. Da Ramanuja nicht unterscheidet zwischen einem höheren und einem niederen Brahman, gibt es für ihn auch keine Unterscheidung zwischen einem höheren und einem niederen Wissen. Die Lehre der Upanishaden ist nicht zweifach, sondern von Grund auf eins und führt den erleuchteten Menschen nur zu einem Ergebnis. Viveka Chudamani - Die höchste Wirklichkeit ist ohne ein Zweites Reines Bewusstsein -verbunden mit allem - Kommentar zum Viveka Chudamani Vers 394 von Sukadev Bretz - "Die Höchste Wirklichkeit (brahman) existiert aus sich selbst, ist wie Raum rein, frei von Vielfalt, unbegrenzt, reglos, unveränderlich, ohne innen und außen, ungeteilt, nicht-dual. Was anderes gibt es zu erkennen?" Der Himmel bleibt gleich unabhängig vom Wetter In diesem Vers verwendet Shankara die Analogie des Raumes oder des Himmels. Wenn du den Himmel siehst, dann mögen Wolken da sein. Es mag regnen, schneien, hageln, windig sein. Trotzdem ändert sich der Himmel nicht. Luft ändert sich. Feuchtigkeit ändert sich. Flugzeuge fliegen, Vögel fliegen aber der Himmel verändert sich nicht. Der Raum verändert sich nicht Oder nehmen wir mal den Raum der Erde. Es passiert dort sehr viel. Menschen kommen und gehen. Es scheint so viel dort zu passieren. Der Raum verändert sich nicht. In diesem Sinne ist Brahman immer da. Brahman verändert sich nicht. Wenn es kein Bewusstsein gäbe, was alle wahrnimmt, was wäre in diesem Universum? Was wäre ohne Bewusstsein? Es würde alles keinen Sinn machen. Nur dadurch, dass Bewusstsein da ist, macht das Dasein einen Sinn. Es gibt ein Bewusstsein hinter allem. Man kann sagen, dass das Bewusstsein ohne die Welt existiert, die Welt aber nicht ohne Bewusstsein existiert. Daher gibt es nur Bewusstsein. Mache dir das bewusst! Bewusstsein ist unendlich und ewig. Dein Körper geht hierhin und dorthin. Dein Geist denkt dieses und jenes. Aber dein Bewusstsein ist schon dort, wo dein Körper hingeht und was auch immer dein Geist denkt, das Bewusstsein ist schon vorher da. Bewusstsein ist überall In diesem Sinne sei dir bewusst, der Körper bewegt sich. Gerade heute mache dir bewusst, dass das Bewusstsein überall ist. Der Körper scheint sich in diesem Bewusstsein zu bewegen oder auch die Körper der anderen scheinen sich im Bewusstsein zu bewegen. Aber es gibt ein Bewusstsein überall und in diesem Bewusstsein bewegen sich die Körper und reflektieren das unendliche Bewusstsein. Spüre das mal: Überall ist Bewusstsein. In diesem Körper reflektiert sich Bewusstsein. In einem anderen Körper reflektiert sich Bewusstsein und auch in einem dritten Körper, aber es gibt nur ein einziges Bewusstsein. Viveka Chudamani - Ich bin das nichtduale Brahman Ich bin das eine ohne ein Zweites - Kommentar zum Viveka Chudamani Vers 493 von Sukadev Bretz - Der Schüler spricht aus seiner Verwirklichung heraus und er sagt: „Ich bin nicht dies und auch nicht das, aber der höchste Beleuchter von beidem, rein, frei von jeglichem Inneren oder Äußeren. Ich bin grenzenlos, wahrlich, ich bin das nicht-duale Brahman.“ Werde dir deiner Selbst bewusst Nutze diesen Vers, um dir deiner Selbst bewusst zu werden. Wiederhole nach mir den Vers geistig, vielleicht wenn du in der Lage bist zu meditieren, dann meditiere gleich, ansonsten höre, wiederhole und spüre. „Ich bin nicht dies und auch nicht das, aber der höchste Beleuchter von beidem, rein, frei von jeglichem Inneren oder Äußeren. Ich bin grenzenlos, wahrlich, ich bin das nicht-duale Brahman.“ Der spirituelle Name Advaita Der spirituelle Name Advaita bedeutet Eines ohne ein Zweites. Vaita heißt Zweiheit und Advaita heißt Nicht-Zweiheit. Advaita ist derjenige, der im ewigen, unteilbaren Bewusstsein verwurzelt ist. Wenn du den Namen Advaita hast, dann weißt du, dass du eins mit allem bist. Es gibt keine Trennung. Es gibt nur Einheit. Sei Dir dieser Einheit immer bewusst. Fühle dich eins mit allen Wesen. Fühle dich eins mit deinem Bewusstsein. Sei dir bewusst, dass hinter aller scheinbarer Dualität, es letztlich nur eine einzige Wirklichkeit bzw. ein einziges kosmisches Bewusstsein gibt. Sukadev über Advaita Dvaita heißt Zweiheit, kommt von dvi, zwei und Advaita heißt Nicht-Zweiheit. Es ist interessant, dass man im Sanskrit weniger von Einheit spricht, obgleich es das auch gibt, denn zum Beispiel heißt Yoga Einheit, aber gerade im Vedanta spricht man von Advaita Vedanta, Nicht-Zweiheit. Vieles im Vedanta wird in der Negation ausgedrückt, denn eigentlich, die eigentliche Wahrheit ist nicht in Worte zu fassen. Egal, wie viel Worte man gibt, es stimmt nicht. Daher heißt es: "Neti, Neti, nicht dies, nichts das." Daher heißt Niranjana makellos. Oder es gibt auch den Ausdruck "Nirmala - ohne ein Makel". Und so gibt es Advaita. Advaita, also ohne ein Zweites. Gott ist Advaita, "one without a second", wie Swami Chidananda gerne gesagt hat, "eins, ohne ein Zweites". Advaita Vedanta heißt, dass es nur eine höchste Wirklichkeit gibt, ohne ein Zweites. Das heißt, in Wahrheit bist du alles, in Wahrheit ist alles Gott, in Wahrheit ist alles Brahman, es gibt nichts Zweites, alles nur eins. Advaita wird auch oft als Monismus übersetzt. Monismus, die Philosophie der Einheit. Und es gibt heute auch Versuche, Advaita in allen spirituellen Traditionen zu entdecken. Advaita Vedanta ist am bekanntesten. Aber es gibt auch Advaita z.B. im Sufismus. So gibt es den Ausdruck "Analhak", das heißt das gleiche wie "Soham. Ich bin Das. Ich bin ER." Man findet es im Judentum, z.B. in der Kabbala. Auch dort wird von der Einheit von Mensch, Gott und Welt gesprochen. Wir finden es im Christentum. Z.B. Meister Eckhart war ein Advaitin, wie wir sagen würden. Wir finden es in den verschiedensten Religionen. Natürlich finden wir es im Buddhismus, Buddhismus ist Advaita und wir finden es im Taoismus. Advaita in der Hatha Yoga Pradipika Advaita ("Nicht-Zweiheit") ist auch eine Bezeichnung für den höchsten Zustand im Hatha Yoga. In der Hatha Yoga Pradipika (4. Kapitel, Verse 3 - 4) ist Advaita ein Synonym zu Rajayoga, Samadhi, Amanaska, Manonmani und anderen Bezeichnungen. Advaita अद्वैत advaita Aussprache Hier kannst du hören, wie das Sanskritwort Advaita, अद्वैत, advaita ausgesprochen wird: Spenden-Logo Yoga-Wiki.jpg Siehe auch Advaita Vedanta Advaitasiddhi Advayatva Jnana Yoga Vedanta Vedanta Schulen Nisargadatta Maharaj Ramana Maharshi Nirvikalpa Samadhi Wer bin ich Erkenntnis Satchidananda Glückseligkeit Selbstverwirklichung Erfahrung Mumukshu Moksha Samadhi Swami Sivananda Shankara Goraksha Shataka Sanskrit Kurs Lektion 108 Yogachudamani Upanishad Vers 83 Ramesh Balsekar Appayya Dikshitar Bhagavata Purana Mantraweihe Spiritueller Name Spirituelle Namen Liste Mantra Diksha Nama Diksha Seminare zum Thema Mantra und Musik Literatur Swami Sivananda: Autobiografie auch als eBook Swami Sivananda: Sivananda - Ein moderner Heiliger Swami Sivananda: Samadhi Yoga Swami Sivananda: Göttliche Erkenntnis Swami Sivananda: Sivanandas Botschaft vom göttlichen Leben Swami Sivananda: Inspirierende Geschichten Swami Sivananda: Die Kraft der Gedanken Swami Sivananda: Japa Yoga Swami Sivananda: Die Überwindung der Furcht Swami Sivananda: Vedanta für Anfänger Sri Shankaracharya: Das Kronjuwel der Unterscheidung Weblinks Sankara Kapitel II Yoga, 3. Verschiedene Wege von Yoga Unterschiedliche Arten von Samadhi, 3. Jnana Yoga Samadhi Autobiographie von Swami Sivananda Kapitel 1. Ich bin geboren Swami Sivananda Artikel von Swami Sivananda Swami Sivanandas Integraler Yoga Die sechs Yoga-Wege Meditation & Yoga Einführung in Vedanta Swami Sivananda: Was ist Jnana Yoga? Swami Sivananda, Göttliche Erkenntnis: Vedanta Internetseiten der Divine Life Society Internetseiten von Yoga Vidya Hatha Yoga Pradipika 4.4 The Hatha Yoga Project Seminare Jnana Yoga und Philosophie 12.02.2021 - 14.02.2021 - Bhagavad Gita - Live Online Rezitation, Behandlung und Interpretation dieser "höchsten Weisheitslehre". Anleitung zu gelebter Spiritualität im Alltag: Wie erkenne ich meine Lebensaufgabe? Wie entscheide ich mich?… 18.02.2021 - 18.02.2021 - Einstieg in die Yoga Philosophie: das Yoga Sutra von Patanjali kennenlernen - Online Workshop Zeit: 18:00 – 21:00 Uhr Du möchtest dich mehr mit der Yoga Philosophie beschäftigen, tiefer eintauchen in die Weisheiten der alten Schriften? Das Yoga Sutra von Patanjali ist ein Standardwerk v… Indische Schriften 11.02.2021 - 11.02.2021 - Yoga Sutra, 3. und 4. Kapitel ausführlicher - Online Workshop Zeit: 18:00 – 21:00 Uhr Das Yoga Sutra des Patanjali, Raja Yoga: In diesem 3 Stunden-Workshop beschäftigen wir uns ausführlicher mit dem 3. und 4. Kapitel des Yoga-Sutra von Patanjali. Die Sutr… 12.02.2021 - 14.02.2021 - Bhagavad Gita - Live Online Rezitation, Behandlung und Interpretation dieser "höchsten Weisheitslehre". Anleitung zu gelebter Spiritualität im Alltag: Wie erkenne ich meine Lebensaufgabe? Wie entscheide ich mich?… Meditation 11.02.2021 - 11.03.2021 - Mantra und Meditation mit Katyayani - Online Kurs Reihe Termine: 5 x donnerstags, 11.2., 18.2., 25.2., 4.3., 11.3.2021 Zeit: jeweils 20:00 – 21:00 Uhr Die Mantra Meditation ist eine der am meisten praktizierte Meditationstechnik. Lerne an 5 Abenden ve… 12.02.2021 - 12.02.2021 - Meditation für Fortgeschrittene - Die Kraft der inneren Ruhe Zeit: 18:00 - 21:00 Uhr Gerade in unserer schnelllebigen Welt ist es wichtig, mal kurz inne zu halten. Schon 5-10 Minuten tägliche Meditation können zu innerem Gleichgewicht verhelfen. Meditation… Vedanta (Sanskrit, m., वेदान्त, vedānta) ist neben dem Samkhya eine der heute populärsten Richtungen der indischen Philosophie und heißt wörtlich übersetzt: „Ende des Veda“ d. h. der als Offenbarung verstandenen frühindischen Textüberlieferung („Veda“ → „Wissen“). Der Begriff wurde erstmals in der Mundaka-Upanishad 3,2,6 und der Bhagavad-Gita, Vers 15,15 für die am Ende des vedischen Schrifttums stehenden Upanishaden verwendet.[1] Später wurde es der Name eines der sechs Darshanas, der philosophischen Systeme des Hinduismus. Innerhalb des Vedanta gibt es mehrere Richtungen, von denen der Advaita-Vedanta heute die bedeutendste ist. Die Bedeutung, die Vedanta (und insbesondere Advaita Vedanta) heute innerhalb der religiösen und philosophischen Traditionen Indiens zukommt, ist zum Teil beeinflusst durch Diskurse, die im Europa des ausgehenden 18. Jahrhunderts ihren Ausgangspunkt hatten. Die Interpretationen der damals in Europa vorliegenden indischen Schriften durch verschiedene Autoren (insbesondere Philosophen und Theologen) prägten nachhaltig das europäische Bild Indiens. Seit dem 19. Jahrhundert lässt sich beobachten, wie dieser Diskurs innerhalb religiöser Reformbewegungen sowie der indischen Unabhängigkeitsbewegung eine Neuinterpretation erfuhr.[2] Inhaltsverzeichnis 1	Grundlagen 2	Formen des Vedanta 2.1	Advaita-Vedanta 2.2	Vishishtadvaita-Vedanta 2.3	Achintya Bhedabheda 2.4	Shuddhadvaita 2.5	Dvaita-Vedanta 3	Siehe auch 4	Literatur 5	Weblinks 6	Einzelnachweise und Anmerkungen Grundlagen Das Studium der Veden und das Befolgen der Rituale wurden als Voraussetzung für das Studium des höheren Wissens, des Vedanta, angesehen. Nur wer so gereinigt war und den höheren Kasten angehörte, durfte den Vedanta studieren. Die vorgeschriebene vorbereitende Reinigung des Schülers durch vedische Rituale wird heute oft durch Elemente des Bhakti-Yoga ersetzt. Bereits in den Upanishaden kristallisieren sich die zentralen Begriffe Atman (innerstes Sein des Menschen) und Brahman (Weltseele) heraus. Sie werden in vielen Aussagen als Einheit identifiziert: „Diese Seele (Atman) ist Brahman“, „Das bist du“ (Tat Tvam Asi), „Ich bin Brahman“. Die Natur des Brahman ist satya („Wahrheit“), jnana („Erkenntnis“), ananta („Unendlichkeit“) oder ananda („Glückseligkeit“). Hier stellt sich die Frage nach der Beziehung der individuellen Seelen, jivatman, zum paramatman, d. h. Brahman, und nach der Beziehung der Welt der Vielfältigkeit zum einen letzten Sein. Wird in den Upanishaden auch immer wieder die Einheit betont, gibt es doch auch Ansätze, die der Welt eine eigene, von Brahman getrennte Wirklichkeit zusprechen. Bei der Lösung dieser Frage kam es zu den unterschiedlichen Vedanta-Systemen. Formen des Vedanta Ausgehend von den verschiedenen Kommentatoren der Grundlagentexte (Brahma-Sutra, Upanishaden und Bhagavad Gita) entstanden mehrere Schulen des Vedanta.[3] Dazu gehören unter anderem: Advaita-Vedanta, Vishishtadvaita-Vedanta, Achintya Bhedabheda, Shuddhadvaita und Dvaita-Vedanta. Advaita-Vedanta Beim Advaita-Vedanta (Sanskrit, m., अद्वैत वेदान्त, advaita vedānta, advaita = „Nicht-Dualität“) handelt es sich um ein monistisches System,[4] das die Welt auf ein einziges Prinzip zurückführt. Der bekannteste Gelehrte des Advaita-Vedanta war Shankara (ca. 788–820 n. Chr.)[5] Wesentliches Merkmal des Advaita-Vedanta ist die Wesensidentität von Atman (individuelle Seele) und Brahman (Weltseele), deshalb die Bezeichnung Advaita-Vedanta = „Vedanta der Nichtzweiheit“. Durch das Überwinden von avidya (Unwissenheit) und maya (Illusion) kann der Mensch diese Wahrheit erkennen, das Selbst vom Nicht-Selbst befreien und Moksha (Erlösung) erlangen.[6] Shankaras wichtigster Beitrag besteht in der Entwicklung des Brahman-Begriffs ohne Form und Attribute (nirguna). Daher sind auch sat (reines „Sein“), cit (reines „Bewusstsein“) und ananda (reine „Glückseligkeit“) keine das Brahman qualifizierenden Attribute, sondern sie konstituieren sein Wesen. Shankara erkennt zwar auch den Wert von mystischen Erfahrungen und Bhakti-Frömmigkeit an, ihm zufolge kann die Erkenntnis der Einheit von Atman und Brahman aber nur durch das Studium heiliger Texte erlangt werden.[7] Erlösung steht damit nur der Brahmanen-Kaste offen. Shankara sprach sich scharf gegen den Buddhismus aus, da dieser den Offenbarungscharakter der Veden ablehnt (Nastika).[8] Vertreter des modernen Neo-Advaita verweisen ganz auf das nichtduale Ziel des Advaita und versuchen, dieses durch Erfahrungen zu vermitteln. Vishishtadvaita-Vedanta Vishishtadvaita-Vedanta (Sanskrit, n., विशिष्ताद्वैत वेदान्त, viśiṣtādvaita vedānta, advaita („Nicht-Dualität“), vishishta („modifiziert“)) bedeutet so viel wie qualifizierter Nicht-Dualismus. Es besagt, Gott existiere als Einziges, jedoch bliebe die Pluralität der Welt als eine reale Erscheinungsform Gottes erhalten und sei nicht, wie bei Shankaras Advaita, eine Illusion. Bedeutendster Vertreter ist Ramanuja (1017–1137 n. Chr.), der in allem das göttliche Brahman, für ihn in Vishnu-Narayana, sieht. Alle Eigenschaften der Schöpfung seien real und unter der Kontrolle Gottes. Dieser könne trotz der Existenz aller Eigenschaften eins sein, da diese nicht unabhängig von ihm existieren können. In Ramanujas System besitzt Gott (Narayana) zwei untrennbare Wesensarten, nämlich die Welt und die Seelen. Diese verhalten sich danach zu ihm wie Körper und Seele. Materie und Seelen stellen den Körper Gottes dar. Gott sei ihr Bewohner, die Kontrollinstanz, Materie und Seelen untergeordnete Elemente, Eigenschaften. Ramanuja vertritt das Konzept eines persönlichen höchsten Wesens, Narayana und die göttliche Liebe ist für ihn der verbindende Faktor zwischen dem höchsten Wesen und den individuellen Seelen. Der Vishishtadvaita bildet neben einigen verwandten Theorien eine wichtige theoretische Grundlage des Vishnuismus, insbesondere des Bhakti-Yoga, des Weges der Hingabe an Gott. Der Vishishtadvaita konnte sich als erster gegen Shankaras Advaita-Vedanta (Monismus) behaupten. Weitere wichtige Vertreter waren Yāmuna und Nathamuni (823–951 n. Chr.). Achintya Bhedabheda oder auch Dvaitadvaita, bezeichnet eine Schule, welche die gleichzeitige Einheit und Verschiedenheit der Wahrheit lehrt. Begründer dieser Philosophie ist Chaitanya (1486–1533). Diese Lehre besagt, dass sowohl die Gesamtheit aller Seelen als auch die Gesamtheit der Materie (Prakriti) Umwandlungen der Energie der höchsten Wahrheit sind. Als Gottes Energie sind sie einerseits mit ihm identisch und gleichzeitig auf ewig von ihm verschieden, „bheda-abheda“. Dies sei „achintya“ unvorstellbar. Die Wahrheit, die „nichtduale Einheit in Vielfalt“, wird im Bhagavatapurana 1.2.11 veranschaulicht: „Die Kenner der Wahrheit beschreiben die ewige Wahrheit, deren Wesen nichtduale reine Erkenntnis ist, als Brahman, Paramatma und Bhagavan, so wird es vernommen.“ Anhänger dieser Philosophie sehen in dem Vers die konzentrierte Lehre: Die absolute Wahrheit ist nichtdual und doch wird sie gleichzeitig bezeichnet mit Brahman, die alldurchdringende und eigenschaftslose spirituelle Energie. Paramatma, die Überseele, welche jeden Atman begleitet und in transzendenter Gestalt in allen Dingen gegenwärtig ist. Bhagavan, der höchste Herr selbst, der jenseits der manifestierten Prakriti in seinem ewigen Reich Vaikuntha weilt. Shuddhadvaita Shuddhadvaita, die Philosophie der reinen Nichtdualität, wurde von Vallabha (1479–1531), einem Zeitgenossen Chaitanyas begründet. Er lehnt die Maya-Lehre Shankaras ab, wonach Universum und Individualität bloße Illusion seien. Für ihn ist die ganze Welt Gottes Energie und trotz des ständigen Wandels real. Wie andere vishnuitischen Philosophen unterscheidet auch er zwischen Gott, Materie und den individuellen Seelen. Vallabha erhob das Bhagavatapurana zur Position einer höchst autoritativen Schrift. Sein systematisches Werk Tattvadipa, das sich mit den Lehren des Bhagavatapurana beschäftigt, veranschaulicht seine Philosophie des Shuddhadvaita: Krishna erschafft die Jivas (Seelen), kreiert das Universum und genießt alles. Der Zweck der Existenz Gottes und der Seelen liege in nichts anderem, als sich gegenseitig zu erfreuen und zu genießen. Radha sei die Gestalt gewordene Liebe Krishnas.[9] Die Schule Vallabhas ist bekannt für ihre Verehrung Radhas und Krishnas als das höchste göttliche Paar. Die Vallabha-Schule ist heute eine starke religiöse Bewegung, die vor allem in Nordindien Millionen von Anhängern haben soll. Dvaita-Vedanta Dvaita-Vedanta (Sanskrit, m., द्वैत वेदान्त, dvaita vedānta, dvaita = „Zweiheit“, „Dualität“) wurde vom Philosophen Madhva (1199–1278) begründet. Der Begriff Dvaita-Vedānta bedeutet: „Vedanta der Zweiheit“. Danach ist der Atman vom Brahman ewig getrennt und nicht so wie im Advaita-Vedanta identisch. Stattdessen seien alle Menschen Individuen (jivas), von denen jeder einen eigenen Geist habe. Auch untergrabe die Gleichsetzung von Gottseele einerseits und den Seelen der Individuen andererseits die absolute Autorität Gottes, der allein das Höchste Brahman sei, und von dessen Gnade allein es abhänge. Gottesdienst (puja) und die glaubensvolle Unterwerfung unter ein höheres Wesen (Bhakti-Yoga) seien sinnlos, wenn dieses höhere Wesen identisch mit der (eigenen) Seele ist. Das Dvaita-Vedanta wurde fortentwickelt von Jayatirtha (1356–1388) und Vyasaraya (1478–1589). Die Anhänger der von Madhva gelehrten Religion sind heute am stärksten vertreten im indischen Bundesstaat Karnataka. Siehe auch Yoga-Vasishtha Literatur Paul Deussen: Das System des Vedânta … Brockhaus, Leipzig 1883. Paul Deussen: Die Sûtra’s des Vedânta oder die Shârîraka-Mîmânsâ des Bâdarâyana nebst dem vollständigen Kommentare des Shânkara. Aus dem Sanskrit übersetzt. Brockhaus, Leipzig 1887. Eliot Deutsch: Advaita Vedanta – A Philosophical Reconstruction. University of Hawaii Press, 1986, ISBN 0-8248-0271-3. Gavin Flood: An introdiction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1996. Erich Frauwallner: Geschichte der indischen Philosophie. Otto-Müller-Verlag, Salzburg 1953. Helmuth von Glasenapp: Vedānta und Buddhismus (= Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur. Geistes- und sozialwissenschaftliche Klasse. Jahrgang 1950, Band 11). Verlag der Wissenschaften und der Literatur in Mainz (in Kommission bei Franz Steiner Verlag, Wiesbaden). Rewati Raman Pandey: Scientific Temper and Advaita Vedanta. Sureshonmesh Prakashan, Varanasi 1991. Raphael: Advaita Vedanta. Der Weg der Nicht-Dualität. Verlag J. Kamphausen, Bielefeld 2006, ISBN 3-933496-36-5. Raphael: Tat Tvam Asi – Das bist du. übers. v. Beate Schleep. Kamphausen, Bielefeld 2000, ISBN 3-933496-48-9. Arvind Sharma: The Philosophy of Religion and Advaita Vedānta: A Comparative Study in Religion and Reason. Pennsylvania State University, University Park 2008, ISBN 978-0-271-02832-3. Sthaneshwar Timalsina: Consciousness in Indian Philosophy: The Advaita doctrine of 'awareness only'. Routledge, New York 2009, ISBN 978-0-415-77677-6. Weblinks Sri Swami Sivananda: All About Hinduism – Ausführliche Beschreibung auf Englisch Vedânta-Texte auf Sanskrit und Deutsch, Übersetzung von Paul Deussen 1887 Andrew J. Nicholson: Bhedābheda Vedānta. In: J. Fieser, B. Dowden (Hrsg.): Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Sangeetha Menon: Advaita Vedānta. In: J. Fieser, B. Dowden (Hrsg.): Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Webseite der deutschen Vedanta-Gesellschaft e. V. Einzelnachweise und Anmerkungen Georg Feuerstein: Die Yoga Tradition. Geschichte, Literatur, Philosophie & Praxis. Yoga Verlag, Wiggensbach 2009, ISBN 978-3-935001-06-9, S. 40 f. Richard King: "Mystic Hinduism". Vedanta and the politics of representation. In: Ders.: Orientalism and Religion. Postcolonial Theory, India and 'The Mystic East'. Routledge, London 1999, S. 118–142. Flood 1996, S. 239. Flood 1996, S. 239. Flood 1996, S. 239. Flood 1996, S. 241. Flood 1996, S. 242. Flood 1996, S. 240. Zusammengefasst aus Klaus K. Klostermaier: Hinduism – A Short History. 2000, ISBN 1-85168-213-9, S. 111–114.

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